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Coding Guide to Co-Creating 3 Billion Jobs
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Connecting regional local summits such as Africa's April 2012
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1976 Why did The Economist say : most valuable challenge is change every type of 20thC organisation
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Don't trust your nation's economics until ...
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free 2

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Michael Palin gets job creators vote as the last BBC tv presenter who is truly his own man. By which we mean he chooses only to present topics where the censors at the BBC will not come into play as he lets his curious mind explore the world with love and humor. This clipping of Palin celebrating being with the Russian navy at Vladivostok is priceless:

  • Funny
  • Loving on all sides

 palinstruth.JPG

 

Somehow MP got through both Russian and BBC censors at the denoument of his program full circle which visited neighboring cultures from north to south to north. Not even the open spaces linked in by Xi Jinpings amazingly gracious Belt Road explores with such grace travel through neighbors who have had high walls erected between each other but turn out to have such decent people inside. Communities made desperately lonely by failure to resolve historical conflicts which weren’t the peoples fault, but were the maddeni ng games of big bankers and big carbon.

 

 

Michael isn’t just a navigator of how any two peoples cultures could find there’s more common kindness aching to be released between generations than historical angst

 

He comes from what I dare call the amateur school of acting which is Cambridge footlights and which we Scots also celebrate annually as free arts festival of the Edinburgh Fringe

 

Cambridge’s brilliant pro-youth Economist W99 Maynard Keynes was a lover of the arts and a believer that however robotic society became there would always be huge amounts of work for artists to facilitate so that every community could thrive.

 

Cambridge Arts Theatre is a 666-seat theatre on Peas Hill and St Edward's Passage in central ... When only £2,300 was raised by subscription of the town, Dr Keynes underwrote the rest himself. Intending to represent both "town and gown", ...

Capacity666

Opened1 February 1936

 

 

 Cambridge Footlights remains that space in Cambridge University and Theatre where students active amusement grows round experimenting as stand up comics and performers of satirical sketches. Back in the student days of Palin, none of the famous footlighters as far as I know were expecting to go into a career in entertainment- they all had academic degrees to study but did so with an extrovert joy of youth which used to have some peculiar coinstraints in the old style male Cambridge Colleges. Moreover in Micheal’s student days Cambridge didn’t yet have a busineess school. Extraordinary innovatoions rthat had come out of Cambdige like the discovery of DNA were done as pure exploration to improve the human lot not as pure commercialism

 

Palin was part of the team whose 1960s renditions of Monty Python stood on a free spirited par with say the Beatles “imagine” of IF man and computer can race to the moon- why should there be any challenge that humanity will not be able to solve. In those 1960s, we (English-Speaking youth) were naive to believe that our race would never be confronted with any challenge to our societies sustainability other than ridding the world of nuclear superpower.

 

Back in 1984 my family argued, so far wrongly, that the BBC would be the jewel in the English speaking crown that would help the peoples mediate any conflict. Here you can see the list of timelines we were hoping the BBC asa world service owned by the peoples would open inter-generational space to but which it has so far failed to do

 

This isn’t Michael Palins fault. You can guage how the BBC gets censored by considering Tony Blair (or later the parliamentary inquest into Rupert Murdoch tabloid abuse in a mobile era) . Some of The BBC’s journalists had reasonable proof that Saddam didn’t have chemical weapons but Blair fancied being George Bush’s Little Big Brother, and so we went to war. What bothered me about this Iraq war is illustrated on the other side of the Atlantic at Geoirgetwon University where I was doing some volunteer work on media reality. Usually people are relatively free to enter Georgetown Campus. That day there was a pompous professor manning the gate – do not come in unless you believe in the war. I told him oh I am sure you will win your glorious war but I am scared your leader has no cultural plan on what to do as soon as he won the war. He looked as if he would pop out of his skin but by that time others were pushing through. The bullypit embedded in Georgetown and I survived to battle student freedoms for another day

 

I would love it if Micahel Plain could take back his own BBC footage and issue a youtube series on how the north south belt roads are as important to debate openly worldwide as te east west. More to the point his fans in Vladivostok would love to see a tunnel between the most extreme tip of north east asia and the nearly adjacent state of Alaska. That would be the day when small enterprises of the world’s most cold and land-locked peoples could get back to flowing free trade across all 4 hemispheres. If Americans truly are the free and the brave lets help the worldwide generation celbrate  building bridges and tunnels, no walls, and no more black&white holes in what is meant by the kind of social justice Baltimore girls stood up for in 1881 when their case law was the first to turn the 13th amendment end slavery into a local win-win (which became the social networks whose most famous 20th C alumni was Thurgood Marshall)

 

 

Michael has also had a pure green spirit. He selflessly chaired the Rural Geographical Society during the times when the great BBC naturye correspindent David Attenborough confessed his biggest mistake. Said David: being a broadcaster at the BBC is such a huge responsibility that I have never taken sides on an issue until I a sure its proven beyond all reasonable doubt. David was self-justifying why natures number 1 broadcaster in the English-speaking world had taken so long to come out on the side of the climate crisis. And there’s the mathematical rub- here is a pre-eminent naturalist saying in effect he only dared question something after its was exponentially breaching a tipping point towards collapse. How sad the BBC’s lack of freedom of speech has so far been when it faced critical tests of Truth’s Inconvenience.

 

Will English speaking peoples  ever regain the essence of world service that the BBC is so uniquely funded to be

 

related heroes search for aiib's greatest heroes including Jeju governor won host of green big bang club linking in maps of 2000 place governors united in race to thriving carbon zero youth economies 

 

aiibsampler of 80 nations favorite intergenerational banking experiments

 

 

Lead I-Bank

Country & project, tot$

Description

Other partners

 

Aiib  in 18 short months up to june 2017 JEU, asian infrastructure investmet bank has become favorite bank of 80 nations delegations concerned with intergenerational development

Tajikistan D-U border road

 total 106 mn$ Cooperation Corridor 3 that spans almost 7,000 kilometers from the Russian Federation in the north to the Persian Gulf in the south. The 62-km highway passes through two major economic areas - the Gissar Valley and the town of Tursunzade

 with european reconstruction bank

 tak.JPG

aiib

Bangladesh energy distribution

 165 mn$- benefit 2.5 mn rural and up to 12.5 mn

 

 

aiib

Pakistan National motorway m4

 transport corridor between Islamabad, Faisalabad, and Multan, ensuring enhanced connectivity between the various parts of Pakistan, and will help facilitate regional trade from Central Asia to the seaports of Gwadar and Karachi

 yotal 273 mb $ with asian dev bank

 

Aiib

Indonesia slum upgrading

 tructure investments for up to 154 cities

 532 mn$ with world bank

 

aiib

Pakistan tarbela hydropower extension

 

 

 

aiib

Myanmar myingyan power plant

 

 

 

aiib

Oman preparing railway to link superport

 

 

 

aiib

Oman duqm port and science park

 

 

 

 

Azerbaijan Anatolian hna gas pipeline

 

 

 

 

Indonesia Reg Inv Proj1

 

 

 

 

Indonesia Dam op improvement

 

 

 

 

Bangaldesh  natural gas infrastructure

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Georgia batumi road

 

 

 

 

India power for all

 

 

 

 

India infrastructure fund

 

 

 

 

Tajikstan Nurek hydro power

 

 

 

 aiib

India Gufarat rural roads

 350 mn $

 

 

 aiibegypt first project -solar annnounced sept 2017 approx 75 mn-17 from AIB  
 ndb russia USD 460 mn sovereign project loan to the Russian Federation for the development of infrastructure and implementation of information technology systems of the judicial system in Russia to 2030   
 ndb (BRICS)India’s Madhya Pradesh Major District Roads Project; upgrade about 932 miles of roads 470 mn $  
 ndb (BRICS) China Putian Pinghai Bay Offshore Wind Power 292 mn $  
 ndbChna solar photovoltaic power plant with total capacity of 100 MW Lingang Industrial Area, one of the six major functional development areas of Shanghai. up to 70 mn$  

  aiib sept 28 2017 The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) continues its collaborative approach to address the infrastructure gap in Asia by investing US$150 million in the IFC’s Emerging Asia Fund and co-financing a project with the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to improve energy connectivity in India by strengthening its power transmission system. 

 

aiib 500 million (208 from aiib, 208 from world bank, Mara Warwick, WB Country Director for Brunei, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand.  )  philippines sept 2017 - mitigate flooding in Manilla - Under the Metro Manila Flood Management Project, 36 existing pumping stations will be modernized, 20 new ones will be constructed, and supporting infrastructure along critical waterways will be improved in the cities of Manila, Pasay, Taguig, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, San Juan, Pasig, Valenzuela, Quezon City, and Caloocan. Many of Metro Manila’s existing pumping stations were built in the 1970s and have become inefficient and underperforming. 


"With this project, the government is taking an important step in the implementation of the Metro Manila Flood Management Master Plan designed to safely control floods in the national capital region and surrounding areas," said Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) Secretary Mark Villar. "The Master Plan will take 25 years to implement, but this phase of modernizing Metro Manila’s pumping stations will ensure that several million residents will be less vulnerable to floods." 

Solid waste clogs waterways and the entries to pumping stations, affecting the operation and maintenance of the pumps. The project will improve management of solid waste within the barangays (villages) near the drainage systems served by the pumping stations. It will also support the government’s resettlement of informal settlers that are located on the waterways. 
 
DPWH (Dept of Public Works & Highways) and the Metro Manila Development Authority will implement the project in close coordination with local governments and key shelter agencies. Slated to start this year, the project is scheduled to be completed in 2024.  

 

ndb orojects as at oct 2017

Please Select CountryBrazilRussiaIndiaChinaSouth AfricaPlease Select SectorRenewable EnergyTransportationSocial Infrastructure
LOAN AMOUNTSOV. /NON-SOVBORROWERGUARANTOREND-USER/ ON-LENDEELENDING MODALITYTARGET SECTORDEVELOPMENT IMPACT
Canara 
(India)
USD 250 mSovereign guaranteedCanara BankGovernment of IndiaSub-projectsSovereign guaranteed:
3 tranches
Renewable energy (wind, solar etc)– 500 MW renewable energy 
– Avoided 815,000 t CO2/year
Lingang 
(China)
RMB 525 m (USD 81 m)SovereignPRC Goverment-Shanghai Lingang Hongbo New Energy Development Co. Ltd.Sovereign project loanRenewable energy (solar rooftop PV)– 100 MW Solar 
– Avoided 73,000 t CO2/year
BNDES 
(Brazil)
USD 300 mNon-sovereignBNDES-Sub-projectsNational financial intermediary (NFI): two step loanRenewable energy (wind, solar etc)– 600 MW renewable energy 
– Avoided 1,000,000 t CO2/year
ESKOM 
(South Africa)
USD 180 mSovereign guaranteedESKOMGovernment of RSAESKOMSovereign guaranteed project loanRenewable energy (transmission)– 670 MW renewable energy evacuated (transmitted) 
– Avoided 1,300,000 t CO2/year
EDB/IIB 
(Russia)
USD 100 mNon-sovereignEDB/IIB-Nord Hydro-Bely Porog + other subproject(s)National financial intermediary (NFI): two step loanRenewable energy (hydro-power) + green energy– 49.8 MW renewable energy 
– Avoided 48,000 t CO2/year
Madhya Pradesh 
(India)
USD 350 mSovereignGovernment of India-Government of Madhya PradeshSovereign project finance facilityUpgrading major district roads– About 1,500 km of MDRs will be upgraded
Pinghai 
(China)
RMB 2 bn (USD 298 m)SovereignPRC Goverment-Fujian Investment and Development GroupProject loanRenewable energy (wind power)– 250 MW Wind 
– Avoided 869,900 t CO2/year
Hunan 
(China)
RMB 2 bn (USD 300 m)SovereignPRC Government-Sub-project PIUs in Changsha, Zhuzhou and XiangtanSovereign project finance facilityWater, sanitation and flood control, environment– Improved water quality and flood control in the main streams and tributaries of Xiang River
Jiangxi 
(China)
USD 200 mSovereignPRC Government-Government of Jiangxi ProvinceSovereign project finance facilityEnergy conservation– Savings of 95,118 tons of coal equivalent 
– Annual CO2 emissions reduction is 263,476 tonnes
MP Water 
(India)
USD 470 mSovereignGovernment of India-Government of Madhya PradeshSovereign project loanWater supply and sanitation, rural development– Project covers more than 3,400 villages and will benefit over 3 million rural population

 

 

LOAN AMOUNTSOV. /NON-SOVBORROWERGUARANTOREND-USER/ ON-LENDEELENDING MODALITYTARGET SECTORDEVELOPMENT IMPACT
Judicial Support 
(Russia)
USD 460 mSovereignGovernment of Russian Federation-Beneficiaries – Supreme Court, Moscow City Court and District Courts, Federal Bailiffs ServiceSovereign project loanSocial infrastructure– Increased judicial transparency and efficiency, and enhanced protection of judicial rights of citizens of the country

older style banks - asian development bak is 50 years old and has funded over 9000 projects

asia briefing contents of silk road 2015

asias.JPG

The Far Reaching Chinese-Russian Silk Belt & Road JV

Posted on  July 13, 2017 by China BriefingReading Mode

Xi Putin-minAs predicted, a significant array of economic cooperation agreements were signed between Russia and China during President Xi Jinping’s visit to Moscow last week.

The deals include the creation of the new US$10 billion China-Russia RMB Investment Cooperation Fund, which provides access to RMB financing for Russian projects, including under the One Belt, One Road and Eurasian Economic Union initiatives. China was recently given permission to offer settlement services in RMB in Moscow through the ICBC.

Other deals include commitments from China Development Bank, China National Petroleum Corporation, the Silk Road Fund, China Investment Corporation, the Russian Direct Investment Fund, and from the Russia-China Investment Fund. These are examined as follows:

The China-Russia RMB Investment Cooperation Fund

Presidents Vladimir Putin and Xi Jinping were present as the Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF) and China Development Bank (CDB) signed a memorandum of understanding to create the China-Russia RMB Investment Cooperation Fund.

The Fund is expected to facilitate the establishment of a simplified framework for direct investments with settlements in national currencies. The investments will total RMB 68 billion (US$10 billion).

RDIF will implement the project via the Russia-China Investment Fund (RCIF), a private equity fund jointly created by the sovereign wealth funds RDIF and China Investment Corporation (CIC), and CDB will implement the project via its wholly-owned subsidiary China Development Bank Capital.

The RDIF was established in 2011 to make equity co-investments, primarily in Russia, alongside international financial and strategic investors, thus acting as a catalyst for direct investment in the Russian economy.

“We are happy to announce our partnership with China Development Bank, and offer Chinese investors an opportunity to provide capital denominated in the national currency,” says Kirill Dmitriev, the CEO of RDIF and co-CEO of RCIF. “This framework is a powerful driver of direct cross-border investments, with a potential to significantly increase the number of joint Russia-China projects.”

“The China-Russia RMB Investment Cooperation Fund is an important cooperation between China and Russia in the equity investment segment, which is supported by the Chinese and Russian governments,” added Huaibang Hu, chairman of China Development Bank. “It will promote the comprehensive and long-lasting financial and economic partnership between two countries, and facilitate Renminbi internationalization.”

RCIF and Hainan

In another deal signed during Xi’s visit, RCIF agreed to cooperate and implement joint projects in Russia and in Hainan province in China. It will support the development of the One Belt, One Road initiative and bilateral investment cooperation between Russia and China.

The agreement identifies the development of industrial and innovation parks, high-tech healthcare services, tourism and social infrastructure, and culture and art initiatives, as priority areas. The total scope of the planned projects is more than US$500 million.

“Hainan Province stands as a significant portal of the Maritime Silk Road, which is part of the Belt and Road initiative, and RCIF is committed to enhancing bilateral investment and trade between China and Russia,” said Bing Hu, co-CEO and president of RCIF.

Hainan is the southernmost province in China, and is the most popular destination for Russian tourists traveling to China. It has also become the focus of innovation in technology, healthcare, and culture. The province is considered a “new southern bridgehead” for the development of strategic Russian-Chinese cooperation in a number of areas, including investment.

Silk Road Fund and Tushino project, Moscow

Another agreement signed during Xi’s visit involves the Silk Road Fund joining the consortium formed by RDIF and RCIF, in partnership with leading Middle Eastern funds, to invest in a real estate development at the former Tushino airfield in the northwest of Moscow.

The Tushino project received city planning permission in 2016. It includes sports facilities, the Rostec City business park, apartments for 15,000 residents, plus schools and a clinic.

The international consortium now includes investment funds from Russia, China, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Kuwait, and Bahrain. They will provide equity financing for the project with a total investment of over 90 billion Russian rubles (US$1.5 billion). The development involves Russian state-owned corporation Rostec Corporation as one of the key tenants, and Russian Holdings company Vi Holding as a developer.

“The participation of RCIF and the Silk Road Fund, for the implementation of the Rostec-City project demonstrates high levels of confidence from Chinese investors in one of Moscow’s most significant development projects,” comments Karima R. Nigmatulina, CEO of Vi Holding.

“Acting as a co-investor alongside leading international investors, RDIF has been the catalyst for attracting investment into this project. The participation of Chinese investors is particularly significant for us, given that for more than 10 years Vi Holding has been the largest Russian private investor in the Chinese economy.”

The Silk Road Fund  is a US$40 billion medium- to long-term investment fund established in Beijing in December 2014. It provides both equity and debt financing to support infrastructure, energy, industrialization, and financial cooperation that are vital to the connectivity of the Chinese economy with the rest of the world.

Related-Readings_CB-SRB-icons_2017Related: Financing China’s One Belt, One Road: US$8 Trillion in Capital Requirements

Vi Holding Group is an international investment and industrial group based in Russia that owns and operates a diversified portfolio of assets. Its core investment activities are focused on the development and management of real estate assets, power generation, metals and mining. The total value of the group’s assets exceeds US$6 billion.

The group has a significant presence in key global markets with a strong focus on high-growth countries in Asia and Africa, with several large-scale projects successfully completed and a number of new ones under active development. The group also plans to increase the scale of its investment activities in Russia.

Dakaitaowa

RDIF and RCIF signed an agreement during Xi’s visit to work with Russian Export and FRC International. The partners will operate under the common trade name of Dakaitaowa – meaning “to open a Matryoshka (Russian nesting) doll” in Chinese – and will further grow exports of ecologically clean food to Chinese markets.

The agreement entails a joint development of the project and utilization of its infrastructure to export Russian-made ecologically clean food products and distribute them on the Chinese market. The investments will facilitate further sales growth and promote cooperation with retail chains and e-trading platforms in China.

“We believe that now is the right time to be delivering Russian food products to China and this project shows great promise,” says Igor Chaika, chairman of the board of Russian Export and FRC International. “The project is unique in that it will give Russian businesses the opportunity to sell products through existing Chinese sales networks without having to create their own infrastructure.”

Related-Readings_CB-CB-icons_2017Related: China Lays Foundations for Eurasian Free Trade after TPP Failure

CNPC, Rosneft and Gazprom

Growing cooperation in the oil & gas sector was also on the agenda during President Xi’s visit to Moscow. China National Petroleum Corp (CNPC) signed agreements on projects involving Russian oil and gas companies Rosneft and Gazprom.

On July 3, CNPC chairman Wang Yilin and Rosneft CEO Igor Sechin held a meeting and signed a cooperation agreement on behalf of the two sides. CNPC and Rosneft will further promote upstream cooperation in Russia and third-countries, step up the establishment of the joint venture refinery in Tianjin, and move forward with collaboration in a variety of sectors.

And on July 4, in the presence of Presidents Xi and Putin, CNPC chairman Wang Yilin and Gazprom management committee chairman Alexey Miller signed a supplementary agreement to the sales and purchase agreement for Russian gas to be supplied via the eastern route, which was signed in 2014.

In order to ensure that gas deliveries via the eastern route start on time, CNPC will accelerate construction of the pipeline and facilities of the Amur GPP project and underground gas storage in China. CNPC and Gazprom also agreed on enhanced joint upstream development.

Longer term bilateral issues included Presidents Xi and Putin discussing progress on China negotiating a free trade agreement with the Eurasian Economic Union, a free trade bloc that includes Russia, Kazakhstan, and Belarus among its members that if signed off, would see Chinese manufactured goods come right to the borders of the European Union. Also on the agenda was Chinese funding for the opening up and development of the Northern Sea Passage, a maritime route officially acknowledged as part of China’s Belt and Road that would see the Arctic open up to shipping and provide another route for bilateral Sino-Russian trade with Europe.

Related-Readings_CB-RB-icons_2017Related: Advancing Russian Free Trade with Asia, China, & the Pacific 

“These agreements demonstrate that the age of Beijing aligning itself with Washington are once again drawing to a close and illustrate the new power broking between Beijing and Moscow.” says Chris Devonshire-Ellis. “Beijing needs Moscow onside to facilitate the Belt Road axis, and both countries need each other in order to compete with the United States over the main trade prize of the EU. Understanding the new world order requires an acknowledgement of what is happening in Russia. Moscow is increasing its business and trade development infrastructure in the Eurasian region, and will be having a huge impact on both overland and maritime routes. Understanding and spotting where the opportunities and money flows are going means understanding contemporary Russia’s true position in the development of Eurasia and Moscow’s importance to Beijing. There are business and investment opportunities in both.”

 

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Dezan Shira & Associates is a full service practice in China, providing business intelligence, due diligence, legal, tax, IT, HR, payroll, and advisory services throughout the China and Asian region. For assistance with China business issues or investments into China, please contact us at china@dezshira.com or visit us at www.dezshira.com

 

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cua list of industries by nation

Afghanistansmall-scale production of bricks, textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, apparel, food products, non-alcoholic beverages, mineral water, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper
Albaniafood; footwear, apparel and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower
Algeriapetroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing
American Samoatuna canneries (largely supplied by foreign fishing vessels), handicrafts
Andorratourism (particularly skiing), banking, timber, furniture
Angolapetroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair
Anguillatourism, boat building, offshore financial services
Antigua and Barbudatourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
Argentinafood processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
Armeniabrandy, mining, diamond processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging and pressing machines, electric motors, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry, software, food processing
Arubatourism, petroleum transshipment facilities, banking
Australiamining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel
Austriaconstruction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism
Azerbaijanpetroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
Bahamas, Thetourism, banking, oil bunkering, maritime industries, transshipment and logistics, salt, aragonite, pharmaceuticals
Bahrainpetroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, Islamic and offshore banking, insurance, ship repairing, tourism
Bangladeshjute, cotton, garments, paper, leather, fertilizer, iron and steel, cement, petroleum products, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, tea, salt, sugar, edible oils, soap and detergent, fabricated metal products, electricity, natural gas
Barbadostourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export
Belarusmetal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers, motorcycles, , synthetic fibers, fertilizer, textiles, , refrigerators, washing machines and other household appliances
Belgiumengineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly, transportation equipment, scientific instruments, processed food and beverages, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, base metals, textiles, glass, petroleum
Belizegarment production, food processing, tourism, construction, oil
Benintextiles, food processing, construction materials, cement
Bermudainternational business, tourism, light manufacturing
Bhutancement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium carbide, tourism
Boliviamining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing, jewelry
Bosnia and Herzegovinasteel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, ammunition, domestic appliances, oil refining
Botswanadiamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver; beef processing; textiles
Braziltextiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
British Virgin Islandstourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block, offshore banking center
Bruneipetroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction, agriculture, transportation
Bulgariaelectricity, gas, water; food, beverages, tobacco; machinery and equipment, automotive parts, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel; outsourcing centers
Burkina Fasocotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold
Burmaagricultural processing; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; cement, construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; oil and natural gas; garments; jade and gems
Burundilight consumer goods ( sugar, shoes, soap, beer); cement, assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing (fruits)
Cabo Verdefood and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt mining, ship repair
Cambodiatourism, garments, construction, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles
Cameroonpetroleum production and refining, aluminum production, food processing, light consumer goods, textiles, lumber, ship repair
Canadatransportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum, natural gas
Cayman Islandstourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction, construction materials, furniture
Central African Republicgold and diamond mining, logging, brewing, sugar refining
Chadoil, cotton textiles, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
Chilecopper, lithium, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles
Chinaworld leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products (including footwear, toys, and electronics); food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites
Christmas Islandtourism, phosphate extraction (near depletion)
Cocos (Keeling) Islandscopra products, tourism
Colombiatextiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
Comorosfishing, tourism, perfume distillation
Congo, Democratic Republic of themining (copper, cobalt, gold, diamonds, coltan, zinc, tin, tungsten), mineral processing, consumer products (textiles, plastics, footwear, cigarettes), metal products, processed foods and beverages, timber, cement, commercial ship repair
Congo, Republic of thepetroleum extraction, cement, lumber, brewing, sugar, palm oil, soap, flour, cigarettes
Cook Islandsfruit processing, tourism, fishing, clothing, handicrafts
Costa Ricamedical equipment, food processing, textiles and clothing, construction materials, fertilizer, plastic products
Cote d'Ivoirefoodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, gold mining, truck and bus assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials, electricity
Croatiachemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism
Cubapetroleum, nickel, cobalt, pharmaceuticals, tobacco, construction, steel, cement, agricultural machinery, sugar
Curacaotourism, petroleum refining, petroleum transshipment, light manufacturing, financial and business services
Cyprustourism, food and beverage processing, cement and gypsum, ship repair and refurbishment, textiles, light chemicals, metal products, wood, paper, stone and clay products
Czechiamotor vehicles, metallurgy, machinery and equipment, glass, armaments
Denmarkiron, steel, nonferrous metals, chemicals, food processing, machinery and transportation equipment, textiles and clothing, electronics, construction, furniture and other wood products, shipbuilding and refurbishment, windmills, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment
Dhekelianone
Djibouticonstruction, agricultural processing, shipping
Dominicasoap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement blocks, shoes
Dominican Republictourism, sugar processing, gold mining, textiles, cement, tobacco, electrical components, medical devices
Ecuadorpetroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals
Egypttextiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures
El Salvadorfood processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals
Equatorial Guineapetroleum, natural gas, sawmilling
Eritreafood processing, beverages, clothing and textiles, light manufacturing, salt, cement
Estoniafood, engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textiles; information technology, telecommunications
Ethiopiafood processing, beverages, textiles, leather, garments, chemicals, metals processing, cement
European Unionamong the world's largest and most technologically advanced regions, the EU industrial base includes: ferrous and non-ferrous metal production and processing, metal products, petroleum, coal, cement, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, aerospace, rail transportation equipment, passenger and commercial vehicles, construction equipment, industrial equipment, shipbuilding, electrical power equipment, machine tools and automated manufacturing systems, electronics and telecommunications equipment, fishing, food and beverages, furniture, paper, textiles
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)fish and wool processing; tourism
Faroe Islandsfishing, fish processing, tourism, small ship repair and refurbishment, handicrafts
Fijitourism, sugar, clothing, copra, gold, silver, lumber, small cottage industries
Finlandmetals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Francemachinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics; textiles, food processing; tourism
French Polynesiatourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts, phosphates
Gabonpetroleum extraction and refining; manganese, gold; chemicals, ship repair, food and beverages, textiles, lumbering and plywood, cement
Gambia, Thepeanuts, fish, hides, tourism, beverages, agricultural machinery assembly, woodworking, metalworking, clothing
Gaza Striptextiles, food processing, furniture
Georgiasteel, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese, copper, gold), chemicals, wood products, wine
Germanyamong the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, automobiles, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles
Ghanamining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building, petroleum
Gibraltartourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco
Greecetourism, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, metal products; mining, petroleum
Greenlandfish processing (mainly shrimp and Greenland halibut); gold, zinc, anorthosite and ruby mining; handicrafts, hides and skins, small shipyards
Grenadafood and beverages, textiles, light assembly operations, tourism, construction
Guamnational defense, tourism, construction, transshipment services, concrete products, printing and publishing, food processing, textiles
Guatemalasugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism
Guernseytourism, banking
Guinea-Bissauagricultural products processing, beer, soft drinks
Guineabauxite, gold, diamonds, iron ore; light manufacturing, agricultural processing
Guyanabauxite, sugar, rice milling, timber, textiles, gold mining
Haititextiles, sugar refining, flour milling, cement, light assembly using imported parts
Holy See (Vatican City)printing; production of coins, medals, postage stamps; mosaics, staff uniforms; worldwide banking and financial activities
Hondurassugar, coffee, woven and knit apparel, wood products, cigars
Hong Kongtextiles, clothing, tourism, banking, shipping, electronics, plastics, toys, watches, clocks
Hungarymining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
Icelandtourism, fish processing; aluminum smelting;; geothermal power, hydropower; medical/pharmaceutical products
Indiatextiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals
Indonesiapetroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instruments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism
Iranpetroleum, petrochemicals, gas, fertilizers, caustic soda, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), ferrous and nonferrous metal fabrication, armaments
Iraqpetroleum, chemicals, textiles, leather, construction materials, food processing, fertilizer, metal fabrication/processing
Irelandpharmaceuticals, chemicals, computer hardware and software, food products, beverages and brewing; medical devices
Isle of Manfinancial services, light manufacturing, tourism
Israelhigh-technology products (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics, fiber optics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, pharmaceuticals, construction, metal products, chemical products, plastics, cut diamonds, textiles, footwear
Italytourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
Jamaicatourism, bauxite/alumina, agricultural-processing, light manufactures, rum, cement, metal, paper, chemical products, telecommunications
Japanamong world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles, processed foods
Jerseytourism, banking and finance, dairy, electronics
Jordantourism, information technology, clothing, fertilizers, potash, phosphate mining, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining, cement, inorganic chemicals, light manufacturing
Kazakhstanoil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, uranium, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials
Kenyasmall-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminum, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism
Kiribatifishing, handicrafts
Korea, Northmilitary products; machine building, electric power, chemicals; mining (coal, iron ore, limestone, magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc, lead, and precious metals), metallurgy; textiles, food processing; tourism
Korea, Southelectronics, telecommunications, automobile production, chemicals, shipbuilding, steel
Kosovomineral mining, construction materials, base metals, leather, machinery, appliances, foodstuffs and beverages, textiles
Kuwaitpetroleum, petrochemicals, cement, shipbuilding and repair, water desalination, food processing, construction materials
Kyrgyzstansmall machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
Laosmining (copper, tin, gold, gypsum); timber, electric power, agricultural processing, rubber, construction, garments, cement, tourism
Latviaprocessed foods, processed wood products, textiles, processed metals, pharmaceuticals, railroad cars, synthetic fibers, electronics
Lebanonbanking, tourism, food processing, wine, jewelry, cement, textiles, mineral and chemical products, wood and furniture products, oil refining, metal fabricating
Lesothofood, beverages, textiles, apparel assembly, handicrafts, construction, tourism
Liberiamining (iron ore and gold), rubber processing, palm oil processing, diamonds
Libyapetroleum, petrochemicals, aluminum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
Liechtensteinelectronics, metal manufacturing, dental products, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism, optical instruments
Lithuaniametal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, lasers, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry, information technology, video game development, app/software development, biotechnology
Luxembourgbanking and financial services, construction, real estate services, iron, metals, and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation and logistics, chemicals, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism, biotechnology
Macautourism, gambling, clothing, textiles, electronics, footwear, toys
Macedoniafood processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals, automotive parts
Madagascarmeat processing, seafood, soap, beer, leather, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism, mining
Malawitobacco, tea, sugar, sawmill products, cement, consumer goods
MalaysiaPeninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, petroleum and natural gas, light manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, medical technology, electronics and semiconductors, timber processing; Sabah - logging, petroleum and natural gas production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum and natural gas production, logging
Maldivestourism, fish processing, shipping, boat building, coconut processing, woven mats, rope, handicrafts, coral and sand mining
Malifood processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Maltatourism, electronics, ship building and repair, construction, food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, footwear, clothing, tobacco, aviation services, financial services, information technology services
Marshall Islandscopra, tuna processing, tourism, craft items (from seashells, wood, and pearls)
Mauritaniafish processing, oil production, mining (iron ore, gold, copper)
note: gypsum deposits have never been exploited
Mauritiusfood processing (largely sugar milling), textiles, clothing, mining, chemicals, metal products, transport equipment, nonelectrical machinery, tourism
Mexicofood and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism
Micronesia, Federated States oftourism, construction; specialized aquaculture, craft items (shell and wood)
Moldovasugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles
Monacobanking, insurance, tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products
Mongoliaconstruction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing
Montenegrosteelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism
Montserrattourism, rum, textiles, electronic appliances
Moroccoautomotive parts, phosphate mining and processing, aerospace, food processing, leather goods, textiles, construction, energy, tourism
Mozambiquealuminum, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco, food, beverages
Namibiameatpacking, fish processing, dairy products, pasta, beverages; mining (diamonds, lead, zinc, tin, silver, tungsten, uranium, copper)
Nauruphosphate mining, offshore banking, coconut products
Nepaltourism, carpets, textiles; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarettes, cement and brick production
Netherlandsagroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, construction, microelectronics, fishing
New Caledonianickel mining and smelting
New Zealandagriculture, forestry, fishing, logs and wood articles, manufacturing, mining, construction, financial services, real estate services, tourism
Nicaraguafood processing, chemicals, machinery and metal products, knit and woven apparel, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear, wood, electric wire harness manufacturing, mining
Nigeriacrude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel
Nigeruranium mining, petroleum, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
Niuehandicrafts, food processing
Norfolk Islandtourism, light industry, ready mixed concrete
Northern Mariana Islandstourism, banking, construction, fishing, handicrafts, other services
Norwaypetroleum and gas, shipping, fishing, aquaculture, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles
Omancrude oil production and refining, natural and liquefied natural gas (LNG) production; construction, cement, copper, steel, chemicals, optic fiber
Pakistantextiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
Palautourism, fishing, subsistence agriculture
Panamaconstruction, brewing, cement and other construction materials, sugar milling
Papua New Guineacopra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip production; mining (gold, silver, copper); crude oil and petroleum products; construction, tourism
Paraguaysugar, cement, textiles, beverages, wood products, steel, base metals, electric power
Perumining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, glass, textiles, clothing, food processing, beer, soft drinks, rubber, machinery, electrical machinery, chemicals, furniture
Philippinessemiconductors and electronics assembly, food and beverage manufacturing, construction, electric/gas/water supply, chemical products, radio/television/communications equipment and apparatus, petroleum and fuel, textile and garments, non-metallic minerals, basic metal industries, transport equipment
Pitcairn Islandspostage stamps, handicrafts, beekeeping, honey
Polandmachine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles
Portugaltextiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper and pulp, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, automobiles and auto parts, base metals, minerals, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; dairy products, wine, other foodstuffs; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism, plastics, financial services, optics
Puerto Ricopharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, food products, tourism
Qatarliquefied natural gas, crude oil production and refining, ammonia, fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement, commercial ship repair
Romaniaelectric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials
Russiacomplete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries (including radar, missile production, advanced electronic components), shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts
Rwandacement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunhaconstruction, crafts (furniture, lacework, fancy woodwork), fishing, collectible postage stamps
Saint Kitts and Nevistourism, cotton, salt, copra, clothing, footwear, beverages
Saint Luciatourism; clothing, assembly of electronic components, beverages, corrugated cardboard boxes, lime processing, coconut processing
Saint Martintourism, light industry and manufacturing, heavy industry
Saint Pierre and Miquelonfish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism
Saint Vincent and the Grenadinestourism; food processing, cement, furniture, clothing, starch
Samoafood processing, building materials, auto parts
San Marinotourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine
Sao Tome and Principelight construction, textiles, soap, beer, fish processing, timber
Saudi Arabiacrude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals, ammonia, industrial gases, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), cement, fertilizer, plastics, metals, commercial ship repair, commercial aircraft repair, construction
Senegalagricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
Serbiaautomobiles, base metals, furniture, food processing, machinery, chemicals, sugar, tires, clothes, pharmaceuticals
Seychellesfishing, tourism, beverages
Sierra Leonediamond mining; iron ore, rutile and bauxite mining; small-scale manufacturing (beverages, textiles, footwear)
Singaporeelectronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, entrepot trade
Sint Maartentourism, light industry
Slovakiaautomobiles; metal and metal products; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals, synthetic fibers, wood and paper products; machinery; earthenware and ceramics; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products; food and beverages; pharmaceutical
Sloveniaferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
Solomon Islandsfish (tuna), mining, timber
Somalialight industries, including sugar refining, textiles, wireless communication
South Africamining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textiles, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs, commercial ship repair
Spaintextiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment
Sri Lankaprocessing of rubber, tea, coconuts, tobacco and other agricultural commodities; telecommunications, insurance, banking; tourism, shipping; clothing, textiles; cement, petroleum refining, information technology services, construction
Sudanoil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly, milling
Surinamebauxite and gold mining, alumina production; oil, lumbering, food processing, fishing
Swazilandsoft drink concentrates, coal, forestry, sugar, textiles, and apparel
Swedeniron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
Switzerlandmachinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments, tourism, banking, insurance, pharmaceuticals
Syriapetroleum, textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate rock mining, cement, oil seeds crushing, automobile assembly
Taiwanelectronics, communications and information technology products, petroleum refining, chemicals, textiles, iron and steel, machinery, cement, food processing, vehicles, consumer products, pharmaceuticals
Tajikistanaluminum, cement, vegetable oil
Tanzaniaagricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine); mining (diamonds, gold, and iron), salt, soda ash; cement, oil refining, shoes, apparel, wood products, fertilizer
Thailandtourism, textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing such as jewelry and electric appliances, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics, automobiles and automotive parts, agricultural machinery, air conditioning and refrigeration, ceramics, aluminum, chemical, environmental management, glass, granite and marble, leather, machinery and metal work, petrochemical, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, printing, pulp and paper, rubber, sugar, rice, fishing, cassava, world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer
Timor-Lesteprinting, soap manufacturing, handicrafts, woven cloth
Togophosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Tokelausmall-scale enterprises for copra production, woodworking, plaited craft goods; stamps, coins; fishing
Tongatourism, construction, fishing
Trinidad and Tobagopetroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas (LNG), methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, food processing, cement, cotton textiles
Tunisiapetroleum, mining (particularly phosphate, iron ore), tourism, textiles, footwear, agribusiness, beverages
Turkeytextiles, food processing, automobiles, electronics, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Turkmenistannatural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing
Turks and Caicos Islandstourism, offshore financial services
Tuvalufishing
Ugandasugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production
Ukrainecoal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food processing
United Arab Emiratespetroleum and petrochemicals; fishing, aluminum, cement, fertilizers, commercial ship repair, construction materials, handicrafts, textiles
United Kingdommachine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, other consumer goods
United Stateshighly diversified, world leading, high-technology innovator, second-largest industrial output in the world; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining
Uruguayfood processing, electrical machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals, beverages
Uzbekistantextiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals
Vanuatufood and fish freezing, wood processing, meat canning
Venezuelaagricultural products, livestock, raw materials, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, construction materials, medical equipment, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, iron and steel products, crude oil and petroleum products
Vietnamfood processing, garments, shoes, machine-building; mining, coal, steel; cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, mobile phones
Virgin Islandstourism, watch assembly, rum distilling, construction, pharmaceuticals, electronics
Wallis and Futunacopra, handicrafts, fishing, lumber
West Banksmall-scale manufacturing, quarrying, textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs
Western Saharaphosphate mining, handicrafts
Worlddominated by the onrush of technology, especially in computers, robotics, telecommunications, and medicines and medical equipment; most of these advances take place in OECD nations; only a small portion of non-OECD countries have succeeded in rapidly adjusting to these technological forces; the accelerated development of new technologies is complicating already grim environmental problems
Yemencrude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles, leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; aluminum products; cement; commercial ship repair; natural gas production
Zambiacopper mining and processing, emerald mining, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
Zimbabwemining (coal, gold, platinum, copper, nickel, tin, diamonds, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic ores), steel; wood products, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages

 

What Everybody Needs to Know First About Economics

Economics designs peoples futures but this depends on what logics are analysed- here are the logics The Economist used in the early 19080s when it discussed how the net gneration could be the most productive time for youth

  

A nation/place cannot sustain growth unless its capital is structured so that family's savings are invested in their next generation's productivity. Norman Macrae's 1954 book on The London Capital Market provides chapter and verse. Historically it was timely as London's industrial revolution had planted most of the developed world's laws and financial instruments. Futurewise this book became a source for Norman's forty years of leadership challenges including 3000 editorials. THese became branded in the 2 genres of entrepreneurial revolution and future history of the net generation genre which he focused on from 1972. They script in practical details most of the changes that economists would need to make to historic rules if globalisation is not to collapse the worldwide financial system of 2010s

Norman framed his writings on future purposes huan most wanted around the idea that The Net Generation to 2024 would face change on a scale never previously experienced by our human race. To prevent risks and celebrate job creating opportunities Norman proposed in his 1984 book (The 2024 Report) that the world should unite around youth's most exciting millennium goal. He explained why economics would design the most popular futures if the goal was chosen as racing to end poverty everywhere. Reasons included: its possible, its exciting, it creates jobs post-industrial generation will need to design around collaborative technology, it can empower youth to joyfully unite cultures as we become borderless (more connected than separated), it aligns economics principles with nature's exponentially (compounding) rules of evolutionary selection which are community-up and open.

 download more profiles of 100 collaboration leaders of 2010s = youths most productuive decade 

 

We are shocked how few people know of the main findings of the renowned economist Maynard Keynes- increasingly only economics riles the world and the greatest risk to the future working lives of our children comes from elderly macroeconomists who hire themselves out to the biggest who want to get bigger.



Historically when faulty systems of macroeconomists ruined civilisations they fell one by one. But Einstein took Keynes logic further and hypothesised that the first generation to become more connected than separated by technology would be subject to a final exam. Now if we let erroneous macroeconomists rule whole continents of nations will collapse.



By 1976 my father (Norman macrae) -probably the last student of economics mentored by Keynes-  was writing at The Economist why the next half century would see the net generation tested - he called upon the genre of Entrepreneurial Revolution (ER) networkers to sort out the greatest  innovation challenge economics - and so the human race - will ever face .

 

 

logo320.jpg.

The opportunity of 10 times more productivity for the net generation (with million times more collaboration technology than man's 1960's race to moon)

.The THREAT is preventing the threat of collapsing continent-wide system of value exchange. By 2020 the (exponential track impacting future) sustainanbilyty of every village around the globe will likely be lost or won

..logo3responsibility.jpg...How could we be experiencing record youth unemployent when we are living in a time of a million times more collaboration tech than a generation ago? According to research by Entrepreneur networks started at The Economist in 1976, we are 36 years off track in compounding 2 unustainable systems whose follies multiply each other
  • that caused by non-economic media which also distracts us with glossy images and soiundbites instead of future realities and integrated cross-cultural and inter-generational understanding - full briefing here
  • World's biggest maths error compounded by macroeconomists and all global professions with a ruling monopoly - see below
Discuss: what does everyone need to know about the way economists think and behave. Understand 2 opposite segments of E : The Unacknowledged Microeconomist and the Fatally Conceited.MacroEconomist

Keynes - because economics will incresingly rule the world, the greatest danger to the futures of youth is elderly macroeconomists where fame maks them compete to superpower over peoples  

 Boulding: ****the historic significance of capitalism is precisely a society in which exchange has become a more important source of power than threat**** in his book economics as science

Von hayek- given the fatal conceit in my profession, I really think you shouldn't be doing this - awarding me a first Nobel Prize in economics 
freedom of speech and everything about the future you want, NOW depends on enough people knowing how to play the value exchange game - and why that isnt exactly what the game of monopoly teaches - an exchange is where each side says I wants something from you so let's work out what I can do for you and purposefully improve on this over time through hi-trust communal feedback
debate difference between true capitalism and phoney capitalism
  • agree on a picture like that on the right- we have seen cases where one of the 10 coordinates shown felt the system had betrayed their greatest trust, and so zeroised the organsaition or network (even ones that accountants had been reprorting record profits ahd $100 billion equity
  •  start discussing multi-win models - see our 4 favorites from 36 years of debates with entrepreneuruial revoltionaries
  • choose say 12 markets whose future purpose is most vital to sustaining your children - and use media to agree what the greatest human purpose and corresponding mkilennium goals are that need investing in to fee each market and youth's working lives in serving the most valuable purpose
  • get those (including all parents?) who save across generations to throw out speculators from banking systems and capital markets - eg next time there is a bailout (which means taking your childrens money to refinance a bank) wipe out shareholders; let them set lawyers on old managers and any politicians their pr's lobbied; keep savings accounts safe; restructure bank so that it invests in youth productivity and sustaining communities not bubbles, and not trapping people in debt

Goodwill explains up to 90% of value impacts of any organsaition in a networked economy- yet no nation yet requires that organisations it licences to audit goodwii. 20 years of research has proved the following reciprocal relationship - the purposeful question" who would uniquely miss what if your organsaition did not exist?, has the reciprocal question why let your organisation contnue to exist if it has broken my life-crtiical trust it promised to serve

joyofeconomics.jpg

.........................................

valuetrue capitalism maps how each side win-win-win from other sides communal purpose over time -this  goes back over 250 years to the criteria of free markets adam smith demanded freedom of speech questioned - he talked about the transparency of community markets where a rogue trader might fool some of the people but not for long and not for too big to fail! - the journal of social business edited by adam smith scholars at his alma mater Glasgow University advises people of any other tongue how to build up from adam's hi-trust ideas to such constructs as sustainable global vilage networking first mapped by schumacher (another keynes alumni) - we have a library of free articles for you to choose and translate from

phoney capitalism spins a monopoly, a non-free maket - one side rules by saying I want to take more and more from all of you- esentially this is what rules when global accountants audit only how much one side has profited/extracted withouth how much has it sustains other sides- phoney capitalism can only result in exponentai meltdown becuase so much has been extracetd from system that its unsustainable for human lives or for nature or for both
 
 

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  • MORE ABOUT WHERE VALUING NETGEN CAME FROM

    - in the 1990s I was working with big 5 accountants; I argued for a missing audit they needed to do as regularly as their monetisation audit; I called this how goodwill modelling multiplies value around a gravitational purspoe ewhise gials all sides want to progress over time; it turns out that in knowlege scetors over 90% of the future is bayesian predicatbale on quality of goodwill relationships-3 yeras before andersen crashed I usd this model to warn them that if they stoped multiplying conflicts around true and fair they would be zeroised by society- I didnt succeed in getting my advice to be acted on but at that time unseen wealth publications made by brookings and georgetwon had just been banned by the incolimng bush adminsitration - who didnt like to be told that without the second aidt risks would compound unseen- every collapse USA has seen a hand in during 2000s (and viralised to other nations since 2008) can be traced to this mathenatical error

    what can be done about this mess
    -debate difference between true cpaitalism and phoney capitalsim
    choose say 12 markets hose future purpose is most vital to sustaining your children - and use media to aggree what the greatest huan purspose and corresponding mkilennium goals are that need investing in
    get thse who save across generations to throw out speculators from bankiing systems - eg next time there is a bailout (which means taking your childrens money to refinace a bank) wipe out sharehilers; let them set lawyers on old managers and any politicians their pr's lobbied; keep savings acconts safe; restructure bank so that it invests in youth productivity and sustaining communities not bubbles, and trapping people in debt
    -if you do this today's millions times more coalbration technology than a generation ago can make the next decade the most productive time and joyful for youty and everyine to be alive instead of the most dismal time where natios led by old macroecnomist put youth out of work
    DO YOU KNOW...
    Q: Original Purpose of Economics? A The Scotland of the 1750s was at the end of a first generation to have found their country taken over by England's Empire., So Adam Smith was motivated to start writing about how to design systems so that peoples could could look forward to their next generation sustaining more productive lives than they had had ... 7 quarters later keynes general theory issued humanity's greatest challenge- economics as a systems science had reached the state that only economics rules the world ... moreQ: What do the man-made systems that rule the world look like? A Purposeful value exchanges composed round 5 main flows of how productively peoples lives are used and 5 main demands human beings make as co-workers, customers, owners, stewards of the globe, stewards of society at the village level - moreQ: Why can't human race in 21st C be sustained with choice of economics made by 20th C biggest banks and govs etc? A Long Story: ER alumni are in their 37th year of offering debating scripts eg1 on wht some industrial age systems after world war 2 were designed to be too big to exist as the first net generation became more connected than separated by geographical borders ... What is known is that 2010s is most exciting decade to be an entrpreneur because our impacts define what will be possible for all our childrens' children more 

    World Class Brands are in 25th year (as a subnetwork of Norman Macrae's Entrepreneurial Revolution) of helping sustain the most purposeful organsiations or markets in the world. Core to any charter of purpose is a quiz revolving round this question
    - who would uniquely miss what if this didn't exist?. From this Q&A's list of trust-flows, economics maps how to connect producers and demanders of the exchange in multi-win models of purpose. Henceforth, potential conflicts with this goodwill model are audited and resolved at every cycle so that unique purpose is celebrated to lead the future by continuously multiplying the most value and trust. This model provides the simplest benchmark around all exponential impact metrics of sustainability investement can be calculated and the transparency of all multi-win models are webbed around pro-youth economics. Questions welcomed chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk washington dc hotline 1 301 881 1655

     jam.jpg

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    Not youth's economics of the world Not our schools of the worldYouthandYunus.comLeadersandYunus

    Muhammad Yunus expresses faith in entrepreneurs at G20 summit

    Posted on: November 23, 2011
    Category: News

    Microfinance Focus, November 4, 2011: Professor Muhammad Yunus was invited to deliver a key note speech during the G20 Young Entrepreneurs Summit held in Nice, France. Professor Yunus addressed an audience of more than 400 entrepreneurs from all G20 countries. In his speech, he shared his personal entrepreneurship experiences, his faith in young entrepreneurs to be the pillars of society and the need to include poor countries in the discussion process in making global decisions.

    Professor Yunus being an entrepreneur himself started off creating the Grameen Bank that provides microfinance services to the poor who had little access to financial provisions. From that, he ventured into a wide number of social businesses such as Grameen Nursing College, Grameen Eyecare Hospitals, Grameen Shakti, etc.

    He has always considered young entrepreneurs to be the most effective solution for the future. He said “In my opinion, G20 YES is a fabulous initiative, gathering so much energy and momentum from all over the world. Because of their creativity and leadership, provided that they commit to share the value they create, these 400 young entrepreneurs in this room can change the world.”

    Professor Yunus is also a member of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Advocacy Group, advising the Secretary General of the United Nations. Hence, he believes that the next generation of youths should be handed over the process of the MDGs as soon as possible. He believes that entrepreneurs will have a key role to play in fulfilling the MDGs, if they are committed to the social value created by their companies, and social business can be part of the solutions.

    In his speech, he added that the G20 needed to broaden its scope to deal with the current world crisis. It can no longer remain a political forum with economic agendas. The G20 needs to create a social agenda as well. Professor Yunus proposes that ‘social business’ should be brought to the agenda of G20, as one of the concrete and effective solutions to be considered for immediate implementation so as to guide capitalistic investment towards social value and jobs creation, rather than sheer profit maximization strategies. A social business is a cause-driven business where profits stay within the company for its sustainability.

    Lastly, Professor Yunus concluded that the G20 should be expanded into the G25, where poor countries from each continent should be included in the global agenda which they are part of. He added that “Their problems are inter-related with others, and their proposals of solutions should be considered by the most economically advanced countries in making global decisions. A G25 would be a big step toward ensuring that global social issues are raised, and MDGs implementation is fully shared on the global agenda. And finally, because fighting poverty together is the only way to bring long lasting peace in this world.”

    Source: http://www.microfinancefocus.com/muhammad-yunus-expresses-faith-entrepreneurs-g20-summit

    inquiries chris macrae info @worldcitizen.tv us tel 301 881 1655 ; us office 5801 nicholson lane suite 404, North Bethesda, MD 20852 USA - skype chrismacraedc
     Mapping is a process of discovery. Crucially maps are only as usable as updating correctness of bottom up information. Think of your own use of a map. You look for the "you are here arrow". You want to be directed to somewhere/someone you dont know how to get to; you want your return vist to be safe as well as a value multiplying win-win.
    Does anyone remember the simplest findings of einstein and jon von neumann. Einstein proved that to innovate more value you need to go more micro in what you model; von neumann showed that there is more value to be networked by interfacing safe flows across systems instead of ruling over separation of boundaries. There isnt a single global metrics profession that gets these mathematical -and natural - principles right. Unless we change this global markets will cycle through ever greater collapse and more and more communities will lose sustainability. Mapmaking is that critical an idea to what the net genration will achieve in 2010s; but its also one that children from primary age up can action learn. Its simple. Its just that it works the other way round from top-down people's fatal conceit.
    It explores how to make the invisible principles and practices of real wealth creation visible, and therefore useable. Our planet needs case studies underline the search for new win-wins that build ‘system integrity’
    Trust-flow is the unseen wealth to invest sustainability in. Tranpsarently mapped it develops a goodwill gravity  tyhat invites with roleplayer in a community to multiply goodwill while sustaining their own cashflow.. Trust is not some vague, mushy, abstract warm-hearted sentiment. It is an economic powerhouse – probably just as economically and socially important as oil.
    The point is, there are specific things you need to do to get trust flowing, just as there are specific things you need to do to get oil flowing. And like oil trust has a dark side. Right now, the world is awash with the carbon emissions which threaten the stability and sustainability of its ecosystems. Right now, the world is also awash with the ‘carbon emission’ of trust – mistrust. Indeed it may well be that our ability to tackle the one issue – the threat of environmental catastrophe – depends on our ability to tackle the other issue: how to generate, deepen, extend and sustain trust.>br>But what is the best way of doing this? One thing is for sure. You don’t build and sustain trust via some sentimental exercise of goodwill to all and sundry. There are three very simple principles at the heart of effective trust generation. 
    First, trust is generated via win-win relationships. It’s virtually impossible to generate or sustain trust without mutual benefit for those involved. But beneficial outcomes are not enough in themselves. For trust to be built and sustained, both sides need to signal a demonstrable commitment to finding win-win ways forward. Such a  commitment may require real changes to what we say and do. Second, real ‘win-wins’ are hardly ever purely financial or material. You don’t build trust simply by walking away with more cash in your pocket. Trust works at all the dimensions and levels of human exchange. Yes, it’s about financial and material rewards. But it’s also about purpose (what people want to achieve). It’s about politics with a small ‘p’: the use and abuse of power, the crafting and application of rules of fair play. And it’s about emotions: the sometimes overwhelmingly strong emotions, both positive and negative, that are generated when people deal with other peopleWhat’s constitutes a ‘win’ – a sense of real improvement – is therefore highly specific. It depends absolutely on the details of who the parties are, what they are trying to achieve, in what context. Building trus, therefore involves discovering these specifics. Just as oil doesn’t flow out of the ground, get refined and pump its way into motor vehicles automatically and without effort, so identifying and doing what is necessary to get trust flowing requires dedicated, skilled effort. It requires a disciplined, structured process, not a vague sentiment.

    3) Third, even if we do steps 1) and 2) there’s still a good chance it won’t succeed. Why? Because it ignores an invisible third factor. In the real world, purely two way bilateral relationships don’t exist. There is always a third party whose interests or outcomes are affected by what the other two parties do but who is not a party to the contract. The environment is a case in point. Producers and consumers may both benefit from buying and selling to each other – but what happens if, in doing so, they destroy the environment they both depend on?

    This raises a hugely important question. When two parties pursue win-wins and build mutual trust, are they doing so in a way which creates a win and builds trust for the third party at the same time? Or are they simply pushing the problems – and the mistrust – further down the line on to this third party? Building vigorous, healthy networks of trust is a different kettle of fish to ‘you scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours’ win-win conspiracies. It requires a Map of all the key relationships plus careful consideration of knock-on consequences. It requires a different perspective.

    These three simple, basic steps do not happen automatically. They need to be worked at. The territory needs to be deliberately Mapped and explored. What’s more, there are obstacles in our way – mental and practical obstacles that need to be cleared. Prevailing economic theories about ‘rational economic man’ for example, deny the need to commit to win-win outcomes. Instead, they promote supposedly ‘rational’ (i.e. narrowly selfish behaviours) which actively undermine trust The same theories insist that the only valid measure of human benefit is money, thereby excluding from consideration many of the biggest opportunities for improvement. Meanwhile many vested interests do not want to extend the circle of trust to third parties and complete networks because their positions of power depend on their ability to take advantage of the weaknesses of these third parties. That’s another job for Mapping: helping to identify and mount such obstacles.
    The potential benefits of doing so are unthinkably huge. They start with a simple negative: the relief that comes from when you stop banging your head against a brick wall. Mistrust breeds wasteful, wealth destroying conflict that tends to feed on itself. Anger and hatred engender anger and hatred. Simply easing or stopping the terrible waste of mistrust would transform prospects for many millions of people. We desperately need to find ways of doing this. Then there are the positive benefits. Understanding the real nature of human wealth – all those dimensions of purpose, ‘politics’ and emotion as well as money and material comfort – means we can start being human again; human in the way we think, and act. What’s more, many of these intangible benefits won’t cost a penny. They’re there for the taking, if only we puts our minds to it.
    But there’s more, because trust is also an economic superpower in its own right. In the pages that follow we will show conclusively that material and financial riches are also dependent on trust. In fact, we will argue the case for going one step further. We will say that material and financial riches are a by-product of trust: the visible fruits of invisible, intangible human exchange. Once you understand that sustainable cash flows are a by-product of sustainable trust flows, your understanding of what makes a successful business is transformed.
    Separately, each of these three fruits – reducing the waste of conflict, unleashing the potential intrinsic benefits of human exchange, and energising the sustainable creation of material wealth – are massive in their own right. Put them together and they represent a vast new continent of opportunity.
    As we said, this book is addressed to entrepreneurs and system  innovation revolutionaries. Wherever you happen to be, whatever the change you want to make is, the principles explored in this book apply. The wish to change and the will to change are not the same as being able to change successfully. For that you need to understand your territory. You will need new Maps

    joyofeconomics.jpg

    0.1 Has a continental or worldwide search solutions on job creation that can be replicated across communities been organised before this EU launch of Nov 2011?
    While alumni of entrepreneurial economics have always valued job creation searches- we know of no clear evidence that this has been top of mind in the way that continental-wide government has operated since 1984 even though it was scripted by The Economist's Unacknowledged Giant as the number 1 question the first net generation would need to mediate if sustainable futures and humanity's most needed millennium goals are to be served
    what's different about nov 2011 is 4 top directorates of the EU have nailed their future reputation to this search -more
    1mobamauniobamauni@obamauni bon mots hillary zero sum thinking leads to negative sum results http://www.erworld.tv/id347.html
    1hHCL TechnologiesHCL Technologies@hcltech Press Release: #HCLT listed for the fourth consecutive year in the @WorldBlu's "Most Democratic Workplaces" list. http://hclte.ch/KbzBGH Retweeted by Traci Fenton
    49mAl RobertsonAl Robertson@al_robertson About last night's British Council @time_image film collection launch, with three of my favourite BC films! http://bit.ly/IJwmsc #WhoWereWe Retweeted by Lloyd Davis

    The End of the EU part 1 http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/2012/06/paul-krugman-on-europe-doing-the-unthinkable.html

    TRANSCRIPT: 'The Unthinkable'
    Video above.

    Tom Ashbrook: You're talking about, writing about the end of the EU, the end of the common currency.

    Paul Krugman: it's unthinkable except that continuing down the current path is unthinkable. Spain is actually the epicenter. The Spanish government did nothing wrong. Spain was running a budget surplus before the crisis. It had low levels of debt. But it had a monstrous housing bubble, as did a lot of places, largely financed by the way by German banks which were lending to Spanish banks, which then lent on. And when the housing bubble burst you were left with a severe, extremely severe recession, and so the answer has been government austerity which just makes the slump deeper.

    The alternatives to a breakup of the euro have to be Europe-wide solutions. And so the solution, if there is one, involves accepting a higher rate of inflation for Europe as a whole and that particularly means higher inflation in Germany.
    --Paul Krugman

    What are Spain's alternatives here? Well, if they still had their currency, their own currency, the answer would be devalue, let the peseta drop, Spanish exports would become a lot more competitive, they'd be well on their way to recovery. They don't have their own currency, so people are saying: Well, you have to do all this stuff to stay within the Euro. At some point you say: Well, you know if your answer to our problem is just ever more suffering, ever more you know... 25 percent, 50 percent youth unemployment. If that's your notion of a solution, then maybe although it would be a very terrible thing to have the Euro breakup, maybe that's better than what we're doing. So that's becoming a real possibility now.

    The alternatives to a breakup of the euro have to be Europe-wide solutions. And so the solution, if there is one, involves accepting a higher rate of inflation for Europe as a whole and that particularly means higher inflation in Germany. Talk to the Germans about this and of course they go crazy, but you have to say to them: What is your answer? What you're doing right now is just a path to the collapse of the euro with enormous damage and radicalization and a lot of things that you don't want to see happen in Europe happening.

    TA: If the Germans can't take their foot off the brakes, they're just intrinsically and against history and everything else, Weimar, if they can't do it, what happens?

    PK: Then Europe breaks up and... No, I mean I think it's that stark. It really is, it really is that extreme because you know it's one of those things, you can't be saying that, but then you say: Well, let's talk this through. You know, let's as it said in the original edition of the Godfather - Let us reason together. Right? What are the ways that this can work out? And the current path is not one that can work out.

    It's like an irresistible force hitting an immovable object. On the one hand it's unthinkable that they'll allow the euro to fail because the euro is a terribly important thing, it's not terribly important economically, it would have been better off if they'd, if they had never done it, but now that it has been done, for it to fail is a defeat for the European project, the whole project of bringing peace, democracy, integration to a continent with a terrible history. So it's unthinkable that they'll allow it to fail, but it's also unthinkable that the Germans will accept moderate inflation which is the only solution any of us have been able to come up with. So one of two impossible things is going to happen. Your bet.

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