MAP 17 sdgs & The Economist youth's first 1000 moon landings ground 7 worlds 1 planet

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At 2008 Presidential Candidate Obama promised to end death by malaria by 2015 if elected- what gets me is not failing, but failing to try in any transformative "bend the curve" way. And this from a guy whose mother pioneered microceonomics in Indonesia; a guy whose African half of the family hails from Kenya -arguably home since crowdmapping and happy family banking and MPESA of mobilising the most exciting development stories in Africa; this is not to criticise obama; it is to point out that congress is such a failed system that if you want to do good in the world, then the job in the white house may be the least practical one on earth for yes you can- anyway that's up for oxford union style deb
This title is borrowed from a mission statement anounced by Hilary Clinton 19 January 2010 in Washington DC. You can see her speech calls for a whole new system of investment partnerships in sustaining communities that most urgently need development -compound impact up over many years sustained hard work in and by the community as well as equitable investment and transparent relationships by all who network-partner the community. We will aim to comment on her speech para by para. For those who may want to jump to the centre of where empowerment and micro up collaboration partnership mapping - please have a look at  or rsvp info 

Is Hilary's Speech the greatest support for microeconomics system design over last quarter of century?
Dear Sam and networkers 
she seems to be saying that they want a sector by sector micro up and partnerships review? sam- I am sure you know many of the department names she is referring to
if one trawls across the 3 main micro banks -grameen, brac, jamii bora - you asked the world bank to make a learning exchange from its the same data but cut by sector  .  I don't think they will necessarily make the connection that your centre of microcreditworld has the best quality information -do all the players she is consulting understand that microcreditsummit remains the world's most networked connection of all this info?
do you need any help in getting a sector by sector micro-up presentation ready ?
best chris
Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton's Remarks on Development in the 21st Century
Jan 19 2010
SECRETARY CLINTON: Thank you so much. I am absolutely delighted to be here and to see a lot of familiar faces, colleagues and friends, development leaders, and especially to be here with the Center for Global Development. I want to thank Nancy for her kind introduction and for everything she has done with this organization and for development overall. I want to thank the Peterson Institute for International Economics, and of course, Fred – I learned that Fred was one of the incubators for the Center – and Ed Scott and others who have really made development and development policy such a central issue in their lives as well as in our nation’s life. 
I wanted to give this address months ago, but I thought it wise to wait until we actually had an administrator confirmed for USAID. (Applause.)


Links: Bio of Raj Shah USAID (past board member : AGRA ... ) Poverty Reduction blog of MCC 

And we are so pleased that day has come. Dr. Raj Shah, who if you haven’t met yet, I hope you will.
It’s been a long wait to find the right person, but Raj was worth the months that we spent thinking about how best to build and strengthen USAID. He brings vision and passion, commitment and experience to this critical position. He will be, as he has been, at the table as we make decisions about development, and I look forward to a very close working partnership.
I also want to recognize, for those of you who have not yet met the new head of the Millennium Challenge Corporation, Daniel Yohannes, who is here. We’re delighted that he left a very successful corporate career. He’s an Ethiopian immigrant to this country who really exemplifies the American dream but wants to give back. And so we’re so pleased that Daniel has joined this Administration as well.
I see Alonzo Fulgham in the audience, who served extraordinarily as our Acting Administrator of AID during this past year. I’m very grateful to you, Alonzo. We also have a number of the top team members from the State Department as well.
This has been a labor of love working to put development front and center for Jack Lew, our Deputy for Resources and Management who has taken a particular responsibility for development and foreign aid; for Anne-Marie Slaughter who heads our Policy Planning operation; for Maria Otero who came from the world of development with ACCION, and for our economic team – Bob Hormats and Jose Fernandez – who are working with us on projects in the State Department on financial inclusion.


Best news of January 2010 from Global Grameen Alumni:

 I am also pleased to inform you that we have finalized the memorandum of understanding for global collaboration between UNHCR and the Grameen Trust. We are very excited about the prospects of initiating good projects for the displaced and their hosting communities.

University news : Paris, Thaland, Glasgow ...

Correspondence on Obama's Entrepreneurs Conference 2010

Summit Logo Final

Summit Overview

In his June "A New Beginning" speech in Cairo, President Obama announced that the U.S. will host a Summit on Entrepreneurship to identify how we can deepen ties between business leaders, foundations, and social entrepreneurs in the United States and Muslim communities around the world.  The Presidential Summit on Entrepreneurship, which will be held in Washington, DC over two days in the first quarter of 2010, follows through on President Obama’s commitment.  It represents an opportunity to highlight and support business and social entrepreneurship in Muslim-majority countries (MMC), including their minority populations, and Muslim communities around the world.

Through this Summit, the United States seeks both to join existing efforts and inspire new efforts to promote entrepreneurship and innovation in Muslim-majority countries and Muslim communities around the world.  Delegates will include 150 participants from around the world who will represent their home countries, regions, sectors, and communities at the Summit.  Delegates may self nominate or be nominated by others.

Successful entrepreneurs, investors, academics, and leaders of entrepreneurship networks, non-profits, foundations, and businesses who are invested in promoting business or social entrepreneurship in Muslim communities would be excellent delegates and are encouraged to apply.

There will be no preference given to self-nominations or outside nominations.  However, letters of support are strongly encouraged to supplement a self-nomination.

.hello -

I have only just heard of your entrepreneur summit- is there any chance of attending; for last 2 years I have hosted 1000 bookclub & youth dvd10000 club around muhammad yunus book on social business system designs; and am getting ready to do same for his next book spring 2010;

I have travelled to meet yunus in dhaka 4 times on one occasion co-hosting his 69th birthday dialogue where I also introduced the BBC's main nature and energy correspondent to Yunus' key entrepreneurs in Dhaka.

And. have had another 8 quick meetings with him including his launch of global grameen partnerships out of germany in novemeber 2009; I have been the main external sponsor of his youth and intercitizen networking and help his leadership team map 11 combinations of potential partners from universities to global corporates and , to government agencies to foudnations, from youth networks to other spaces that entrepreneurial revolutionaruies collaborate in; my father surveyed entrpreneurs over 40 years at the economist and learnt microeconomics as a teenager in bangladesh chris macrae bethesda 301 881 1655

So we are looking to have a not only coordinated response from State and USAID, but a whole-of-government approach as well.
I want to start today with a story that often goes untold. It’s the story of what can happen around the world when American know-how, American dollars, and American values are put to work to help change people’s lives.
Like many of you, I have seen the transformative power of development. I have seen the passion and commitment of aid workers who devote their careers to this difficult undertaking. I’ve seen American development at work in a village in Indonesia, where new mothers and their infants were receiving nutritional and medical counseling through a family planning program supported by USAID. I’ve seen it in Nicaragua, where poor women started small businesses in their barrio with help from a U.S.-backed microfinance project. I’ve seen it in the West Bank, where students are learning English today and learning more about America through a program that we sponsor. I’ve seen it in South Africa, where our development assistance, thanks to PEPFAR, is helping to bring anti-retrovirals to areas ravaged by HIV and AIDS and neglect.
But I’ve also traveled our country, and I have been in settings of all kinds. I’ve listened to farmers and factory workers and teachers and nurses and students, hardworking mothers and fathers who wonder why is their government spending taxpayer dollars to improve the lives of people in the developing world when there is so much hardship and unmet needs right here at home.
That’s a fair question, and it’s one I would like to address today: Why development in other countries matters to the American people and to our nation’s security and prosperity.
The United States seeks a safer, more prosperous, more democratic and more equitable world. We cannot reach that goal when one-third of humankind live in conditions that offer them little chance of building better lives for themselves or their children. We cannot stop terrorism or defeat the ideologies of violent extremism when hundreds of millions of young people see a future with no jobs, no hope, and no way ever to catch up to the developed world.
We cannot build a stable, global economy when hundreds of millions of workers and families find themselves on the wrong side of globalization, cut off from markets and out of reach of modern technologies. We cannot rely on regional partners to help us stop conflicts and counter global criminal networks when those countries are struggling to stabilize and secure their own societies. And we cannot advance democracy and human rights when hunger and poverty threaten to undermine the good governance and rule of law needed to make those rights real.

Dear Melissa Hugely excited to read about your global challenge competition in partnerships with USAID. 

As far as Sofia and I understand  from first 2 years of moderating 1000 YunusBookclub & 10000 dvdClub:  with Muhammad Yunus' Global Grameen launch and his new book -galleys available march 2010 - he is proposing above zero-sum collaborations of up to 11 partner typologies with his bank of social business solutions that have been replicated at micro levels between 1976-2005 into over 50 vital service franchises owned by those poorest parents in most need of clean energy, of health, nutrition, clean water, vocational education as well as youth, mobile and digital job creation through microeconomics of community to community replication of sustainable systems 

HEC! Sustainability business cases wherever they are systematically celebrated will connect through a magic moment in 2005, Paris. This in when, how, where and why the idea for the first 2 Collaboration (CP) Partner typologies - universities and global corporate brands was planted by the lunch Benedicte Faivre-Tavignot (and 20 years of her workon the connections between self-esteem and systemic conflict-resolution) hosted with DR Yunus and the CEO of Danone in 2005 - out of which Danone became benchmark global branding corporate partner and HEC the benchmark worldwide university partner. Within a year Nobel amplification -ideas on what more can a sustainability leader actively interconnect if celebrated on a world stage became a 3rd CP.

More Collaboration Partnership ideas were conceptualised and then realised through his first social business book and its debriefing around the world. Interestingly chapter 11 was about funding youth social business competitions of which yours with USAid could be a world leading model particularly if we build on Hilary Clinton's relaunch of USAID  


. Obviously I am biased. I am a huge fan of 2 opposite types of being  -men who will entrepreneurially stop at nothing to change humanity's systems back to sustainability's rising exponential and women who use community & networking to empower the self-esteem of those with the least. But if there is any way my maps of who connects who can help clarify how timely your development with Robert Smith students of global challenge typology within the other 11 collaboration combinations dr yunus is inviting us all to link into please say so.  

A fifth collaboration system typology is networking a critical mass of a whole city's youth into action learning how yes they can be at the centre of job creation systems which is what Benedicte is inviting 2000 Parisian Youth to Q&A Yunus and the French minister for employment and youth on 4 February. A 6th typology is how to take everything learned since 1997 from microcreditsummit as sustainability world’s favourite peoples summit network of networks, and develop social business summits so you don’t have to know too much about banking to be treated as a social business systems entrepreneur. Here I would add that if we could get sam as microcreditsummit leader as yunus as SB summit champion and expert circles from the social value and financial action centres of Robert Smith to know of each other this microeconomic dynamic could be extraordinary for DC, Paris, Dhaka as well as the world 

many thanks to you all for your extraordinary lives and work, chris macrae IsabellaWM Family Foundation DC 301 881 1655

 help needed in nominating a board of world service governors for and - here re some early nominations:

John while in SA -do you know sofia's friend taddy blecher- remarkable job creation force for youth in south africa

if you are doing development/sustainability work then other connections father, sofia and I worldclassbrands,tv most prize after 2 years of interviewing people in Grameen and BRAC and MicroEconomics Summits

***paris HEC (business school)  Yunus Centre (benedicte) faivretavignot and (frederick) dalsace 

**sweden-thailand Yunus Centre borje wallberg

***sam worldwide:Microcreditsummit aiming to make summit in kenya april 2010 best ever and has official approval from queen sofia in spain (world microcreditsummit host madrid) to make 2010-2011 year of researching youth mobile microcredit and job creation networks (the real slumdog millionnaires ) transfers out of southern hemispheres and across all hemispheres

**paul rose Bbc , polar, and princes clean energy networker and broadcaster

***Bangladesh’s world class centre of internet/mobile for the poor – kazi islam

**Clive Priddle Publisher of Future Capitalism, Alan "rules of T" Webber founder of social capitalism and compere of future capitalism, Heath Row former 100 city networker of social capitalism now at google LA

**Melissa Carrier Robert Smith Business School Uni of Maryland Social Value Creation Centre

**Sunita and Geeta Gandhi social business’s favourite city-based schooling system currently 31000 children a year

** PaulK Youth & medical world’s global reconciliation network

** Sajjid Mallik global collaboration between UNHCR and the Grameen Trust

** Ganesh Devy leading gandhian networker for nomadic rights

** Bill Drayton founder of social entrepreneurs and john elkington founder of triple bottoms

** Heather Booth - Networks for banking that invests in america’s people and youth’s generation

** vivian yunus movie and huffpost

chris macrae DC 301 881 1655 Skype IsabellaWM Family Foundation

file note 1999-2000 I worked for world's largest ad agency WPP owned by martin sorell as editor in chief for - while this was one of the glorious failures of dotcom age, gave me opprtunity to interview just about anyone in global brand leadership worlds- from my viewpoint erich J and John caswell are the people in client practice & global brand partnership worlds who most understand communications as systems design and leadership purpose - of course I am always delighted to hear of other candidates in this arena especially as yunus global grameen brand partnerships in sustainability are the biggest global branding challenge I ever expect to live through

samling january 2010's news for best microeconomics summits yet known

Microcredit Summit in Nairobi (press release) - ‎Jan 24, 2010‎

Palos Verdes Estates, CA, January 24, 2010 --( Meet The Neighbors will be traveling to Nairobi, Kenya and the 2010 Microcredit Summit to cover this ...

Middle East Microcredit Summit to Be Held in Nairobi Newstime Africa - Paul Mwaura - ‎Jan 18, 2010‎

Association of Microfinance Institutions (AMFI) Kenya, in conjunction with the Micro-Credit Summit Campaign are organizing the AFRICA – MIDDLE EAST ...

Microcredit summit for the poor comes to Nairobi Business Daily Africa - Sam Daley-Harris - ‎Jan 4, 2010‎

Daley-Harris is founder of the Microcredit Summit Campaign which seeks to reach 175 million poor families with microloans.

BRAC founder Fazle Abed to address Africa-Middle East Regional Microcredit Summit Microfinance Focus - ‎Jan 8, 2010‎

Mr. Abed's involvement in the Africa-Middle East Microcredit Summit mirrors BRAC's entry into Africa. “I now want to build on this success,” said Mr. Abed ...

Kenyan MFIs to host field visits for Microcredit Summit participants Microfinance Focus - ‎Jan 3, 2010‎

3, 2010: The Africa-Middle East Regional Microcredit Summit will arrange field visits to leading microfinance institutions in Kenya, said a statement. ...

Microfinancing offers more than loans Global Arab Network - English News - Sam Daley-Harris - ‎Jan 13, 2010‎

From 7 to 10 April 2010, Munro will welcome 2000 delegates to Nairobi for the Africa-Middle East Regional Microcredit Summit in her role as Chair of the ...

Model tests for SSC examinees The New Nation - ‎Jan 2, 2010‎

10 (b) In 1997 professor Yunus organized the world's first Micro-credit summit in Washington. DC (c) He is the founder of Grameen Bank. ...

Mudar de vida com recurso ao empréstimo Jornal de Angola - ‎6 hours ago‎

“Por estes resultados recebemos um certificado de mérito da Campanha Global Para a Cimeira de Micro – Crédito (MICROCREDIT SUMMIT CAMPAIN)”, ...

[최상현의 세상보기]서민의 희망 뉴스천지 - ‎Jan 7, 2010‎

미소금융이 이렇게 세계적으로 번성하자 유엔은 1997년 미소금융정상선언(microcredit summit declaration)을 채택하기에 이른다. 우리나라에서도 그동안 체계가 없고 ...

We cannot stop global pandemics until billions of people gain access to better healthcare, and we cannot address climate change or scarcer resources until billions gain access to greener energy and sustainable livelihoods.
Now, development was once the province of humanitarians, charities, and governments looking to gain allies in global struggles. Today it is a strategic, economic, and moral imperative – as central to advancing American interests and solving global problems as diplomacy and defense.
Because development is indispensible, it does demand a new approach suited for the times in which we find ourselves. For too long, our work has been riven by conflict and controversy. Differences of opinion over where and how to pursue development have hardened into entrenched, almost theological, positions that hold us back. These stand-offs aren’t fair to the experts who put their lives on the line doing this critical work. They aren’t fair to the American taxpayers who, by and large, want to do good in the world, so long as the money is used well.
So it’s time for a new mindset for a new century. Time to retire old debates and replace dogmatic attitudes with clear reasoning and common sense. And time to elevate development as a central pillar of all that we do in our foreign policy. And it is past time to rebuild USAID into the world’s premier development agency. (Applause.)
Now, the challenges we face are numerous. So we do have to be selective and strategic about where and how to get involved. But whether it’s to improve long-term security in places torn apart by conflict, like Afghanistan, or to further progress in countries that are on their way to becoming regional anchors of stability, like Tanzania, we pursue development for the same reasons: to improve lives, fight poverty, expand rights and opportunities, strengthen communities, secure democratic institutions and governance; and in doing so, to advance global stability, improve our own security, and project our values and leadership in the world.
A new mindset means a new commitment to results. Development is a long-term endeavor. Change seldom happens overnight. To keep moving in the right direction, we must evaluate our progress and have the courage to rethink our strategies if we fall short. We must not simply tally the dollars we spend or the number of programs we run, but measure the lasting changes that these dollars and programs help achieve. And we must share the proof of our progress with the public. The elementary school teacher in Detroit trying to send her kids to college or the firefighter in Houston working hard to support his family are funding our work. They deserve to know that when we spend their tax dollars, we are getting results.
We must also be honest that, in some situations, we will invest in places that are strategically critical but where we are not guaranteed success. In countries that are incubators of extremism, like Yemen, or ravaged by poverty and natural disasters, like Haiti, the odds are long. But the cost of doing nothing is potentially far greater.
And we must accept that our development model cannot be formulaic – that what works in Pakistan may not work in Peru. So our approach must be case by case, country by country, region by region, and cross countries and regions, to face the transnational threats and problems that we are encountering. We need to analyze needs, assess opportunities, and tailor our investments and our partnerships in ways that maximize the impact of our efforts and resources.
Two important and closely coordinated reviews of our nation’s development policy are now underway. The inaugural Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review that I have ordered is led by officials from USAID and the State Department. The Presidential Study Directive on U.S. Global Development Policy is led by the White House and includes representatives from more than 15 agencies that contribute to our global development mission.
As these reviews are completed and recommendations are sent to the President, new ideas and approaches will be refined. In the meantime, I’d like to share a few steps that we are already taking to make sure that development delivers lasting results for people at home and abroad.
First, as President Obama has said, we are adopting a model of development based on partnership, not patronage.
In the past, we have sometimes dictated solutions from afar, often missing our mark on the ground. Our new approach is to work in partnership with developing countries that take the lead in designing and implementing evidence-based strategies with clear goals. Development built on consultation rather than decree is more likely to engender the local leadership and ownership necessary to turn good ideas into lasting results.
But true partnership is based on shared responsibility. We want partners who have demonstrated a commitment to development by practicing good governance, rooting out corruption, making their own financial contributions to their own development. We expect our partners to practice sound economic policies, including levying taxes on those who can afford them, just as we do; or, in countries rich in natural resources, managing those resources sustainably and devoting some of the profits to people’s development. The American taxpayer cannot pick up the tab for those who are able but unwilling to help themselves.
Now, some might say it is risky to share control with countries that haven’t had much success developing on their own. But we know that many countries have the will to develop, but not the capacity. And that is something we can help them build.
The Millennium Challenge Corporation, for example, focuses on countries that have met rigorous criteria, from upholding political rights and the rule of law to controlling inflation and investing in girls’ education. Under MCC compacts, we provide funding and technical support; the country provides the plan and leads the way toward achieving it. There is a lot of work ahead, but early indications of MCC programs are promising. We’re using our resources to help countries that are committed to building their own futures.
This approach highlights the difference between aid and investment. Through aid, we supply what is needed to the people who need it – be it sacks of rice or cartons of medicines. But through investment, we seek to break the cycle of dependence that aid can create by helping countries build their own institutions and their own capacity to deliver essential services. Aid chases need; investment chases opportunity.
Now, that is not to say that the United States is abandoning aid. It is still a vital tool, especially as an emergency response. But through strategic investments, we hope to one day, far from now, to put ourselves out of the aid business except for emergencies.
Our commitment to partnership extends not only to the countries where we work, but to other countries and organizations working there as well. New countries are emerging as important contributors to global development, including China, Brazil, and India – nations with the opportunity to play a key role, and with the responsibility to support sustainable solutions. Long-time leaders like Norway, Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, the U.K., Japan, and others continue to reach billions through their longstanding work in dozens of countries.
Multilateral organizations like the World Bank, the IMF, the UNDP, the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria have the reach and resources to do what countries working alone cannot, along with valuable expertise in infrastructure, health, and finance initiatives.
Non-profits like the Gates Foundation, CARE, the Clinton Foundation, Oxfam International, networks of NGOs like InterAction, as well as smaller organizations like ACCION and Transparency International bring their own resources, deep knowledge, and commitment to humanitarian missions that complement our work in critical ways. And some foundations are combining philanthropy and capitalism in a very innovative approach, like the Acumen Fund. Universities are engaging in critical research, both to solve urgent problems like hunger and disease, and to improve the work of development, like the work of the Poverty Action Lab at MIT.
Even private businesses are able to reach large numbers of people in a way that’s economically sustainable, because they bring to bear the power of markets. A company like Starbucks, which has worked to create supply chains from coffee-growing communities in the developing world that promote better environmental practices and better prices for farmers; or Unilever/Hindustan, which has created soap and hygiene products that the very poor – long-overlooked by private business – can afford.
I mention all of these because we want to do a better job of both highlighting the multitude of partners and better coordinating among them. There should be an opportunity for us to strategically engage in a country with these other partners where we are not redundant or duplicative, but instead are working together to produce better results. We believe that this will open up new opportunities and increase our impact.


Help vote for and celebrate 20 goals needed to be achieved by 2020 to make globalisation sustainable (compounding exponentially up not crashing down)

Second, we are working to elevate development and integrate it more closely with defense and diplomacy in the field. Development must become an equal pillar of our foreign policy, alongside defense and diplomacy, led by a robust and reinvigorated AID.
Now, I know that the word integration sets off alarm bells in some people’s heads. There is a concern that integrating development means diluting it or politicizing it – giving up our long-term development goals to achieve short-term objectives or handing over more of the work of development to our diplomats or defense experts. That is not what we mean, nor what we will do. What we will do is leverage the expertise of our diplomats and our military on behalf of development, and vice versa. The three Ds must be mutually reinforcing.
The experience and technical knowledge that our development experts bring to their work is absolutely irreplaceable. Whether trained in agriculture, public health, education, or economics, our experts are the face, brains, heart, and soul of U.S. development worldwide. They are the ones who take our ideas, our dollars, and our commitment to turn them into real and lasting change in people’s lives.
Some of the most transformative figures in the history of development represent that convergence between development and diplomacy. People like Norman Borlaug, the father of the Green Revolution, or Jim Grant, whose global immunization campaigns saved millions of children, or Wangari Maathai, whose Green Belt Movement has planted millions of trees across Africa and trained thousands of women to be leaders in conservation. These development giants combined outstanding technical expertise with a passionate belief in the power of their ideas. They did whatever it took to convince at times quite reluctant leaders to join them, and as a result, helped to build and lead national, regional, and international movements for change.
Today, we have many such “development diplomats” working at USAID. They embody the integration between development and diplomacy that, when allowed to flourish, can amplify both disciplines.
For example, a lack of support from government leaders can be stalled or stymie development projects, particularly programs that target marginalized populations, like people with HIV, women, or refugees. In those cases, our diplomats, working hand in hand with our development experts, can help make the difference. They have the access and leverage to convince government ministers to offer support.
Development also furthers a key goal of our diplomatic efforts: to advance democracy and human rights worldwide. I remember vividly visiting some years ago the village of Saam Njaay in Senegal, where a former Peace Corps volunteer some of you may know, Molly Melching, set up a village-based NGO called Tostan, supported by USAID. Through Tostan’s projects, women in the village began speaking out about the health consequences and the pain of female genital mutilation, an accepted practice in their culture. This collective wakening led to a village-wide discussion and soon the village voted, democratically voted, to end the practice. Then men from that village traveled to other villages to explain what they had learned about why FGM was bad for women and girls – and by extension, their families and communities – and then other villages banned it as well. And a grassroots political movement grew and eventually the government passed a law banning the practice nationwide.
Now, it takes a while for enforcement to catch up with the law there, as well as in our country. But the larger point is that the experience in this village demonstrates how development, democracy, and human rights can and must be mutually reinforcing. Democratic governance reinforces development, and development can help secure democratic gains. So those who care about making human rights a reality know that development is an integral part of that agenda.
Development is also critical to the success of our defense missions, particularly where poverty and failed governments contribute to instability. There are many examples we could point to, but consider the situation in Afghanistan. Many people ask whether development can succeed there. Well, my answer is yes. The United States supports a reconstruction and rural infrastructure initiative, run by the World Bank, called the National Solidarity Program, which has made progress even in very challenging circumstances. Through this program, more than 18,000 Community Development Councils have been elected and more than 15,000 infrastructure projects have been completed.
Now, progress is difficult. But it is possible. That is why, as we prepare to send 30,000 new American troops, along with thousands from our allied forces in NATO and the International Security Force, we are tripling the number of civilians on the ground. They include agriculture experts who will help farmers develop new crops to replace opium poppies, education experts who will help make schooling more accessible to girls so that they can have a chance at a better future.
The work of these development experts helps make future military action less necessary. It is much cheaper to pay for development up front than to pay for war over the long term. But in Afghanistan and elsewhere, U.S. troops are helping to provide the security that allows development to take root. In places torn apart by sectarianism or violent extremism, long-term development gains are more difficult.
Now in the past, coordination among the so-called Three Ds has often fallen short, and everyone has borne the consequences. Secretary Gates, Administrator Shah, and I are united in our commitment to change that. The United States will achieve our best results when we approach our foreign policy as an integrated whole, rather than just the sum of its parts.
Third, we are working to improve the coordination of development across Washington. In the 21st century, many government agencies have to think and act globally. The Treasury Department leads and coordinates our nation’s engagement with the international financial system. The Justice Department fights transnational crime. Disease control is a global challenge in this interconnected world that includes HHS and CDC and so many other agencies. So is the quality of our air and waterways, something that the EPA has expertise in. But as a growing number of agencies broaden their scope internationally and add important expertise and capacity, even working on the same issue from different angles, coordination has lagged behind. The result is an array of programs that overlap or even contradict.
And this is a source of growing frustration and concern. But it is also an opportunity to create more forceful and effective programs. The challenge now facing USAID and the State Department is to work with all the other agencies to coordinate, lead, and support effective implementation of the Administration’s strategy.
Indeed, this is our core mission. Through our permanent worldwide presence, our strategic vision, and our charge to advance America’s interests abroad, we can help align overseas development efforts with our strategic objectives and national interests. This will not be easy, but it will make our government’s work more effective, efficient, and enduring.
We are already emphasizing this kind of coordination with our new Food Security Initiative, which brings together the Department of Agriculture’s expertise on agricultural research, USAID’s expertise with extension services, the U.S. Trade Representative’s efforts on agricultural trade, and the contributions of many other agencies.
We know that attracting investment and expanding trade are critical to development. So we are looking to coordinate the foreign assistance programs at USAID, MCC, and other agencies with the trade and investment initiatives of the USTR, the U.S. Export-Import Bank, and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation. And we seek to build on the success of regional models of coordination like the Africa Growth and Opportunity Act.
We need to ask hard questions about who should be doing what in the work of development. For too long, we’ve relied on contractors for core contributions and we have diminished our own professional and institutional capacities. This must change. Contractors are there to support, not supplant. USAID and the State Department must have the staff, the expertise, and the resources to design, implement, and evaluate our programs. That is why we are increasing the numbers of Foreign Service officers at USAID and the State Department, and developing a set of guidelines through the QDDR for how we work with and oversee contractors, to make sure we have the right people doing the right jobs under the right conditions.
Fourth, we are concentrating our work in what development experts call sectors – what I think of as areas of convergence. In the past, we’ve invested in many programs across many fields, often spreading ourselves thin and reducing our impact. Going forward, we will target our investment and develop technical excellence in a few key areas, like health, agriculture, security, education, energy, and local governance. Rather than helping fewer people one project at a time, we can help countries activate broad, sustainable change.
To start, we are investing $3.5 billion over the next three years in partner countries where agriculture represents more than 30 percent of GDP and more than 60 percent of jobs, and where up to 70 percent of a family’s disposable income is spent on food. Farming in these places plays such a large role that a weak agricultural sector often means a weak country. Small family farmers stay poor, people go hungry, economies stagnate, and social unrest can ignite, as we have seen with the riots over food in more than 60 countries since 2007.
By offering technical support and making strategic investments across the entire food system – from the seeds that farmers plant to the markets where they sell their crops to the homes where people cook and store their food – we can help countries create a ripple effect that extends beyond farming and strengthens the security and prosperity of whole regions.
We are applying the same approach in the field of health. One of our country’s most notable successes in development is PEPFAR, which has helped more than 2.4 million people with HIV and AIDS receive life-saving antiretroviral medications. Through our new Global Health Initiative, we will build on our success with PEPFAR and other infectious diseases, and we will focus more attention on maternal, newborn, and child health, where there is still a long way to go. We will invest $63 billion over the next six years to help our partners improve their own health systems and provide the care that their own people need, rather than relying on donors into the far foreseeable future to keep a fraction of their population healthy while the rest go with hardly any care at all.
Fifth, we are increasing our nation’s investment in innovation. New technologies are allowing billions of people to leapfrog into the 21st century after missing out on the 20th century breakthroughs. Farmers armed with cell phones can learn the latest local market prices and know in advance when a drought or a flood is on its way. Mobile banking allows people in remote corners of the world to use their phones to access savings accounts or send remittances home to their families. Activists seeking to hold governments accountable for how they use resources and treat their citizens can use blogs and social networking sites to shine the spotlight of transparency on the scourges of corruption and repression.
There is no limit to the potential for technology to overcome obstacles to progress. And the United States has a proud tradition of producing game-changers in the struggles of the poor. The Green Revolution was driven by American agricultural scientists. American medical scientists pioneered immunization techniques. American engineers designed laptop computers that run on solar energy so new technologies don’t bypass people living without power.
This innovation tradition is even more critical today. And we are pursuing several ways to advance discovery and make sure useful innovations reach the people who need them. We are expanding our direct funding of new research, for example, into biofortified sweet potatoes that prevent Vitamin A deficiency in children, and African maize that can be grown in drought conditions. We’re exploring venture funds, credit guarantees, and other tools to encourage private companies to develop and market products and services that improve the lives of the poor.
We’re seeking more innovative ways to use our considerable buying power, for example, through advanced market commitments to help create markets for these products so entrepreneurs can be sure that breakthroughs made on behalf of the poor will successfully reach them.
Here again, there is such potential for fruitful partnership between our government and the dozens of American universities, laboratories, private companies, and charitable foundations that chase and fund discovery. For example, with help from the State Department, U.S. tech companies are working with the Mexican Government, telecom companies, and NGOs to reduce narco-violence, so citizens can easily and anonymously report gang activity in their neighborhoods. We’ve brought three tech delegations to Iraq, including a recent visit by Eric Schmidt, the CEO of Google, who announced that his company will launch an Iraqi Government YouTube channel to promote transparency and good governance. And we’re sending a team of experts to the Democratic Republic of Congo this spring to begin the process of bringing mobile banking technology to that country.
Now, of course, innovation is only the invention of new technologies. It’s not just that. It is also any breakthrough idea that transforms lives and reshapes our thinking. Like Muhammad Yunus’ belief that poor women armed with credit could become drivers of economic and social progress. Or Ela Bhatt’s vision of rural destitute women in India pooling together as the Self-Employed Women’s Association to generate incomes and build grassroots democracy. Or homeless women in South Africa who refused to be deterred by their circumstances and organized themselves to gain access to loans and materials that enable them to build their own houses and eventually whole communities that they now help lead.
Or the insight behind conditional cash transfer programs, which integrate efforts to fight poverty and promote education and health. These innovations have now traveled the world; New York City launched a conditional cash transfer program modeled after Mexico’s; Grameen Bank has opened a branch in Queens. So we’ve got to ensure that extraordinary innovations are on a two-way street that we learn as well as we offer. And we need to discover and disseminate as many of these as possible.
Sixth, we are focusing more of our investment on women and girls, who are critical to advancing social, economic, and political progress. Women and girls are one of the world’s greatest untapped resources. Investing in the potential of women to lift and lead their societies is one of the best investments we can make. You all know the studies that have shown when a woman receives even just one year of schooling, her children are less likely to die in infancy or suffer from illness or hunger, and more likely to go to school themselves.
One reason that microfinance is employed around the world is because women have proven to be such a safe and reliable credit risk. The money they borrow is not only invested and re-invested, and turned into a profit, it is used to improve conditions for their families. And it is almost always repaid. I have seen for myself what micro-lending in women’s lives and their families and communities means, from Bangladesh to Costa Rica to South Africa to Vietnam and dozens of countries in between.
Well, you know the proverb, “Give a man a fish and he’ll eat for a day, but teach a man to fish and he’ll eat for a lifetime”? Well, if you teach a woman to fish, she’ll feed the whole village. (Applause.)
So today, the United States is taking steps to put women front and center in our development work. We are beginning to disaggregate by gender the data we collect on our programs, to measure how well our work is helping improve women’s health, income, and access to education and food. We’re starting to design programs with the needs of women in mind – by hiring more women as extension workers to reach women farmers, or women health educators to improve outreach to women and girls. And we are training more women in our partner countries to carry forward the work of development themselves – for example, through scholarships to women agricultural scientists in Kenya.
This is not only a strategic interest of the United States; it is an issue of great personal meaning and importance to me, and one that I have worked on for almost four decades. I will not accept words without deeds when it comes to women’s progress. I will hold our agencies accountable for ensuring that our government and our foreign policy support the world’s women and achieve lasting, meaningful results on these issues.
So as we apply these six approaches, more will follow – some new, some variations on the past, all reflecting our commitment to find, test, and embrace ideas that work and to learn from our work at every step along the way.
A half century ago, President Kennedy outlined a new vision for the role of development in promoting American values and advancing global security. He called for a new commitment and a new approach that would match the realities of the post-war world. And his administration created the United States Agency for International Development to lead that effort and to make the United States the world leader.
In the decades since, our nation’s development efforts have helped eradicate smallpox and reduce polio and river blindness. We’ve helped save millions of lives through immunizations and made oral rehydration therapy available globally, greatly reducing infant deaths. We’ve helped educate millions of young people. We’ve provided significant support to countries that have flourished in a number of sectors, including economic growth, health, and good governance – countries like South Korea, Thailand, Mozambique, Botswana, Rwanda, and Ghana. And we’ve supplied humanitarian aid to countries on every continent in the wake of hurricanes, earthquakes, famines, floods, tsunamis, and other disasters.
Americans can and do take pride in these achievements, which not only have helped humanity but also have helped our nation project our values and strengthen our leadership in the world.
These efforts have not been the work of government alone. Most people don’t realize that we contribute less than 1 percent of our budget to foreign assistance. The balance is made up by the generous spirit of Americans and is reflected across our nation’s landscape, from farms to civic groups to churches to charities. Over the years, the American people have opened their hearts and their wallets to causes ranging from eradicating polio in Latin America to saving the people of Darfur, to helping people who are poor in Asia purchase livestock, to investing in microenterprise. This private giving exceeds the amount our government spends on foreign assistance.
Today, we call on that same American spirit of giving to meet the challenges of a new century – not only materially, but giving time and talent. So those of you who care deeply about development and who care deeply about the future of our country and our world, help us enlist more Americans in this effort. Help us recruit technology experts, business leaders, engineers, farmers, teachers, doctors, lawyers.
Help us tap into the talents of the first global generation of Americans – the young men and women graduating from our colleges and universities. Encourage them to volunteer, to intern, to work not only for NGOs, but to lend their energy and skill to the State Department and particularly to USAID. I promise that with Raj’s help, we will do more on our end to make sure that our doors are open to this emerging pool of thinkers and doers.
Development work is never easy, but it is essential. It is the work that America is so in tune with. It reflects so clearly our own values, our spirit of cooperation. De Tocqueville noticed it all those years ago that we join up and we work all the time to help others as well as ourselves. So we have an opportunity now in the 21st century to not only do it, but do it better than it’s ever been done before, and to do it for more people in more places, to give to every child the opportunity to live up to his or her God-given potential, and to help create a world that is more equitable, democratic, prosperous, and peaceful.
We can succeed, and when we do, our children and grandchildren will tell the story that American knowhow, American dollars, American caring, and American values helped meet the challenges of the 21st century. Thank you all very much. (Applause.)
MS. BIRDSALL: Madame Secretary, that was an extraordinary speech in its ambition and its reach, and I salute you and your colleagues for the many thoughtful ideas.
The Secretary has agreed to take a limited number of questions. I’m not – I’m going to try and insert one that won’t count – (laughter) – in the --
SECRETARY CLINTON: It’s called the Birdsall exception. (Laughter.)
MS. BIRDSALL: (Laughter.) The Birdsall exception. With my breath somewhat taken away, you know, so many ideas, so many ambitions, I thought it would be interesting to ask you, what do you see as the key constraints on this Administration, this State Department, this revitalized USAID meeting those constraints? Are they political? Are they bureaucratic? Are they organizational? Are they lack of understanding in the Congress? Are they issues and problems in place already, constraints because of contracting in the case of foreign assistance?
Anything you want to say that would give us a sense, if we want to be equally ambitious from outside, in how to help and how to push, how to monitor, how to make sure that this long-term development agenda is indeed realized in the way that you expressed it?
SECRETARY CLINTON: Well, as to the obstacles, I say all of the above and probably some that you didn’t list. I think that there’s a great commitment to development in this Administration. The President’s budget is extraordinarily supportive of what we are attempting to do, and we appreciate that. So it will be important for those of you in the larger development community to make sure that foreign aid is a priority when the budget gets to the Congress, that we get the resources both in terms of dollars and people that are needed to begin to realize this long-term vision.
We have to do our own work inside the government. We have to do a better job of coordinating. We have to, frankly, try to look at what works and what doesn’t work in our own backyard. There are lots of changes that were done either deliberately or inadvertently in USAID that I think need to be undone, that have really undermined the capacity for the United States Government to really drive the development agenda.
We also have to have better coordination on the whole-of-government front. I have been in countries where I’ve asked to see everybody doing any development, and the ambassador nicely invites people that are on a list given to him or her. He or she has never met the people, has no idea who they are or what they do, and even more, the people themselves have never met each other.
You have different programs from USAID or MCC or PEPFAR, and then you have all the other agencies who are providing assistance of some sort or another. It’s not coordinated at the country level and it is certainly not coordinated at the national level or the international level.
So we need your support in making some of the tough decisions internally to try to break through some of the bureaucratic and organizational obstacles that exist. We need to tell a better story on the Hill. There are many people in the Congress who care deeply about development, but who, rather than supporting this broader vision, kind of go for a small piece of the pie, a program that is their earmark or their particular concern, which may or may not contribute to the larger need we have.
We also have to be smarter about the story we tell about America’s development efforts. It’s discouraging to travel around the world and meet people in countries who are very supportive of America’s efforts, particularly supportive of our new President, who say “I don’t know what you spend money on. I never see it. Nobody ever tells us.”
And then I look at the budget; we’re spending hundreds of millions of dollars, and nobody knows. And then what’s deeply discouraging is they say, “We know what the Chinese do. We know what the Japanese do. We can point to the buildings they build and the roads they’ve laid.”
I want the world to know what the American people are doing to try to fight poverty and provide education and healthcare. So we’ve got to bring to scale, which is why I talked about sectors and areas of convergence. So I think there is a lot of work that Raj is going to be facing, that we need the help of the larger community.
And let me say a word about contractors. I mean, some of the best people in development are doing contract work. I know people. I know people who used to be at USAID or somewhere else who are now doing contract work. It is not financially sustainable. We cannot continue to send so many dollars out the door with no monitoring, no evaluation, no accountability. We can save – I want to bring some of those contract employees back inside as full-time American Government development experts. That will be controversial and people will say, “Well, we did it for a reason.” Yes, but I don’t think the reasons stand scrutiny.
There will always be the need for contract workers. But when you have – I think it’s now down to, what, four engineers in all of USAID – I mean, that makes no sense at all. When you look at the added costs, we just have to break this in order to bring people inside to do the work they love to do and that they’re experts in doing, and we will get more results for our investment.
So there are many problems that we know we’re going to confront, but we’re willing to take them all on. We are not into business as usual. The situation is too pressing. The problems of people are too visible. We have to do better and we will.
MS. BIRDSALL: Okay. Thank you very much. Questions. Let’s take one back there and we’ll have one up here. May we start with Hattie Babbitt, ambassador – former ambassador to the OAS?
QUESTION: I think I speak for all of this audience in saying what a thrill it is to have someone – to have a Secretary who has both the understanding and the commitment to the development agenda, so we are all here. This is a very crowded room for a reason, and thank you.
My question is a little bit of a narrower one, and that is that you talked a little bit about energy but not much about Copenhagen or climate change and the development assistance agenda with regard to adaptation and mitigation.
SECRETARY CLINTON: Right. Well, thank you, Hattie. As you know, we are very committed to a program of supporting adaptation and mitigation and technology transfer in the developing world. I went to Copenhagen and announced that the United States would commit to do our part of a hundred billion dollars by 2020. We worked very hard to get the building blocks of an agreement that would enable us to do so. The accord that we finally hammered out did have requirements for verification and transparency which have to be adhered to in order for us to be able and, frankly, willing to make these investments. But I think that for many of the developing countries, this is a lifeline that they are desperate to have, and that they will work with us as we try to sort out how best to deliver on that commitment.
This is going to be an ongoing challenge, and that’s why I mention we have to do a better job of getting some of the other countries that have a role to play more committed and more involved. I mean, China is fast on its way to being the principal manufacturer of solar technology and probably windmill technology as well. How are they going to distribute that, under what conditions, at what price is going to be a huge issue because they’re going to have the capacity, and it’s going to be really a market that they unfortunately are going to, if not control, have a major say in how it is accessed.
So we have a lot of work to do. We’re trying to come up with some follow-on actions to the Copenhagen meeting. It wasn’t, obviously, what many people had hoped for, but it did give us a starting point to make the case that we have to make. And transferring and mitigating and technology are all part of that.
MS. BIRDSALL: Fred, you wanted to ask -- maybe here comes a tough question on Yemen or Pakistan or – (laughter).
QUESTION: No, no, it was more –
MS. BIRDSALL: -- the Chinese exchange rate – (laughter).
QUESTION: No, I want to stick to the theme of the day.
MS. BIRDSALL: Thank you.
QUESTION: And it was really more on the question that Hattie just asked about Copenhagen. As you said, you played a critical role by bringing the development and resource transfer element into that discussion in a way that kept the debate alive. But as one looks to the implementation that you were just discussing, two questions come to mind. A, the amounts are daunting.
QUESTION: Ten billion a year now, a hundred billion a year a decade out. Those amounts would swamp current development assistance.
QUESTION: So, what’s the prospect for making that assistance truly additional so it doesn’t rob Peter to pay Paul? And secondly, what are your plans for implementation within the U.S. Government? Would this be through AID? Would it be separately? How would it be coordinated with the rest of the U.S. development assistance program?
SECRETARY CLINTON: Right. Some of it will be through USAID and the State Department and some of it will be through the contributions to multilateral institutions, like the World Bank. We are just beginning to work out how best to deliver on this commitment. It’s a fair question, Fred, how much of it is additive and how much of it is out of the current budget. We don’t know that yet because we don’t know what the Congress is going to do. We obviously believe that this is a critical point. We would hope that with the stimulus money, that we will actually be competitive on some of the technology, American technology which we would very much like to see used, because I know that that will be of particular concern to members of Congress.
But I think we’re just starting to try to figure out how we’re going to implement this. And the accord itself is going to be the subject of meetings throughout the year. We’re looking hard at what’s the best format for actually realizing this. The meeting in Copenhagen was not a particularly well organized effort, in part because there were many countries that wanted to avoid any kind of commitment, and made their voices unfortunately loud.
So we have an enormous amount of work to do. But the commitment is real. We intend to follow through on it. Probably State, USAID, and Treasury will be the primary vehicles. There will be work to be done through USDA. There was a big agricultural piece of this that came out that Secretary Vilsack led on. There will be a piece out of Energy that Secretary Chu will lead on. So there’s going to be a whole-of-government effort, but the bulk of the work will come through us.
MS. BIRDSALL: I actually was very encouraged to hear you refer to advanced market commitment, to the idea of spending money at home that can help people abroad. And on mitigation and adaptation, I hope that USAID and policy people there will take the position that 90 percent, maybe even a hundred percent, of the investments are in effect development investments. We have an excellent paper by my colleague David Wheeler that points out that looking back at how resilient countries are to floods and natural disasters, the single most effective investment has been girls’ education.
SECRETARY CLINTON: I’m not surprised. (Laughter.)
MS. BIRDSALL: I have several other distinguished board members here. I want to see if they – Mark Malloch Brown, Susan Levine, if you want to – and former board members, do any of you want to take the floor?
MS. BIRDSALL: Mark, introduce yourself. I think everybody knows.
QUESTION: Well, Mark Malloch Brown, a board member of CGD.
MS. BIRDSALL: Lord. Lord Malloch Brown.
SECRETARY CLINTON: Oh, Lord. Oh, sorry.
QUESTION: Well, look. Let me just say Lord works only in one regard other than waiters in restaurants, and that is to be able to say on behalf of the non-Americans in this room that I think your message today, Madame Secretary, your team, this vision is going to be hugely well received all over the world.
But let me just ask two very quick questions. First, you talked about the need sometimes to do things for strategic reasons, even if the development returns are not as high as they might be somewhere else. Crudely put, that means how much for Afghanistan versus how much for Africa? And I’d be fascinated by your comments on how you are going to manage that important balance.
The second point is just – you know, as someone’s admired USAID for years, one of its biggest difficulties is not so much just the sort of things you’ve referred to, but the fact that its political masters have shied away when it comes under attack because a development project somewhere has gone wrong. And development projects do go wrong because it’s a risky, difficult business. I would just urge you to recognize, as I think you did in that speech, you’re going to have to fight very hard, very often with the Congress and others to defend USAID, because so easily it gets into a risk-averse crouch, wondering what it dare do for fear that one day there’ll be a congressional investigation, and that has led to a lack of, if you like, imagination and risk-taking in development – not just U.S. development, but multilateral as well, which I hope with your leadership will be corrected.
SECRETARY CLINTON: Well, hopefully we will avoid making a lot of mistakes, but of course, that is inevitable in any human undertaking. And we will certainly support well thought-out, but unfortunately unsuccessful efforts. But we want to avoid the “I could have told you so.” We just want to avoid that.
I mean, there are certain things that – that’s why we are focusing on the country-led partnership. We want to avoid doing something that makes sense in Washington that makes absolutely no sense on the ground in the country. So as much as we can, avoiding that, and then obviously, we’re all on the same team and we’re going to defend our teammates.
I think that the question about money for Afghanistan versus Africa is a little bit difficult to answer because we have many interests in both places. I went to Africa on a long trip in August, and in part to try to see what we could do and do better, but also to try to prod countries, particularly resource-rich countries, to invest in their own people. I mean, the oil curse is alive and well in countries. The failure to deal with corruption, with violence is alive and well. And it’s heartbreaking because there is so much that could be done, but we’re having to change the minds of both government and private sector leaders in order to achieve the kind of objectives we’re looking for.
And in Afghanistan, we feel very strongly that we need to be an equal partner with the 3Ds in Afghanistan. And when I was there last month, there was a wonderful meeting in the American Embassy of a number of our military leaders and our development experts. And I think it would have made many of you feel very good about the positive support and interaction, and to have some of these very experienced colonels saying “I don’t know what I would do without X, who’s our agriculture expert, or Y, who is our rule-of-law expert.”
Now, we only have, as I said, about a little less than a thousand people slated to go. And obviously, you have 100,000 troops, so you can’t expect to get the same impact. But what we have found is that if we move immediately, we embed our development experts with the military, the military very quickly sees the value, and turns to them. And some of our development experts have been quite clever in trying to make up for the fact that we have limited personnel by enlisting from the ranks of our troops people who have expertise so that the agriculture expert down in the south is using men and women who come from farms and ranches who have experience. So when they go out to talk to Afghan farmers, it’s not just the expert, but somebody saying, “Oh, yeah, I did that, and here’s what I would do.”
So we’re really trying to be creative, but we want to be totally on an equal footing as much as we can going forward.
MS. BIRDSALL: I have Susan Levine, and I saw Byron. Susan and then Byron.
QUESTION: Hi there. It’s such an honor to be here today and hear you speak, and what a wonderful speech. You mention in your speech the idea – I thought it was really important what you said about people in this country not understanding how their tax dollars are being used and why they’re being used outside the country. And you talked about transparency.
And I wondered if you could elaborate a bit on what you mean and how are you going to – I mean, that’s been an issue that we’ve all felt. Any of us who have been in the government at some time dealing with development have known it’s very hard to go to my home state of North Dakota and talk about what we’re doing in countries far away when farmers are having their issues. So how are you going to be transparent?
SECRETARY CLINTON: Well, first we have to eliminate some of the myths. You’ve seen the same surveys I have when people complain about how much money we spend on foreign aid. And when you ask, “Well, how much money do you think we spend,” and they say, “I don’t know, 10 or 20 percent of our budget.” And we say, “No, we spend less than 1 percent.”
We have to sort of set the table so that people know what we’re spending and what we’re spending it on and how it actually benefits our country and the people of our country. But that’s why I included this in the speech because I think that’s a major part of our responsibility. I don’t think that Raj or I or anybody else can expect to have the support we’re looking for, particularly in a difficult economic time, unless we can make the case. And I’m more than happy to make the case.
And I think too that when it comes to transparency, that’s why we’ve got to do a better job of explaining what we do, how we do it, and what the results are. It is just not enough for people, no matter how passionately they feel, in the development world, to say you know it’s the right thing to do, we have a moral obligation to do it, we have to help humanity.
Well, that’s all true. But you’ve got to go the next step and say, “And here’s how we’re doing it and here are the results we’re getting.” And it’s not just because it is the moral and right thing too, albeit that’s absolutely right, but because it is smart and it is important, and here’s why. Because especially in this tight economic times, there are a lot of Americans who feel that they are far more deserving of their government’s help. And you’ve got to recognize that. If you don’t recognize that, you will never build a constituency that deals with the political challenges, but withstands them and keeps going, and avoids what happens now, particularly on the Hill, where people want to earmark and slice up so they can protect one piece because they’re not sure that the whole thing can be protected.
We want a holistic approach to development that can have a constituency in both the Congress as well as the country that can enable us to keep making the case effectively, and we intend to do that.
MS. BIRDSALL: All right. I’m going to sneak in two more. Byron and then Ed Scott.
QUESTION: Hi, Byron Auguste from McKinsey, Secretary Clinton.
SECRETARY CLINTON: Glad to see you again.
QUESTION: Good to see you again. So I want to commend many things of the speech, but particularly the emphasis on building the capacity of governments to deliver – governments and broader delivery system much – which might be outside of government. That’s so important. But I also want to ask you about a bit of a tension perhaps between local ownership, genuine local ownership, and you said, almost in the next sentence, sort of evidence-based approaches.
So take water, for example. McKinsey just did some work with the IFC and a number of other partners that looked at water scarcity across the major river basins. On a business-as-usual scenario, you have a 40 percent gap; also mapped all of the different interventions and the marginal costs to those interventions to actually close that gap. But of course, once you start getting down on the ground, it’s a very political thing. It’s not just about the technicalities or the evidence. How do you square that circle as a matter of principle in our development work?
SECRETARY CLINTON: Well, water is a great example because water is going to be the source of increasing conflicts. And I think it’s a perfect example of combining diplomacy and development. I would hope that sometime in the near future, we’re able to have an international effort focused on water that takes some of the politics not out of it but diminishes it, because it’s not just about what this country is doing to that country but it’s about what all countries are doing to themselves. And that we try, by using technical expertise and political efforts, to begin to make the case that if we don’t have a 21st century international water compact, for example, millions and millions of countries are going to not only be deprived of water but you’re going to have more and more conflicts because of it.
So I think you have to move on both fronts at the same time. You need the evidence-based technical expertise because what will we do in order to deal with the melting snow in the Himalayas and the failure then to replenish the major rivers of Asia, or what will we do about the continuing struggles and conflicts between pastoralists and herders in much of North Africa? I mean, there’s lots of consequences.
But I think we have to try to take it out of the finger-pointing and the bilateral or regional context and try to put it into a broader one. I am very concerned about it and I will welcome the advice of the study group that you referred to from McKinsey. But I think it’s something we’ve got to get on, and we’ve got to get on it quickly. There are going to be wars fought over water in the next 10 years if we don’t try to get ahead of this and look for ways to come up with as many win-win strategies as possible. Not easy, but I think that let’s try to eliminate as many of the solvable aspects of this problem, leaving the hard core ones for the sort of end of the game, where we’re just going to have to try to create leverage to force countries into making these decisions.
MS. BIRDSALL: Said like a great diplomat. Ed, very quickly. They are giving me signals. (Laughter.)
QUESTION: Secretary Clinton, we at the Center want to thank you very much for honoring the center by coming here. And it’s an organization I know you are aware is made up of very high quality people who stand ready to support you and Administrator Shah in this effort. When I’m asked to talk about these issues, people say, well, what are the – if you could only do one or two things, what would you do? The first thing I always say, would be near and dear to your heart, is increase the effectiveness and the status of women in the society. There’s nothing that would be more highly impactful from that.
And then I go on to say something that you didn’t mention in your speech, and that is free trade. There’s a study by one of our fellows on trade which basically postulates that 500 million people would be lifted immediately out of poverty if we had unfettered free trade. What are your thoughts about that issue?
SECRETARY CLINTON: Well, I mentioned trade because I do think trade is an important tool, but obviously didn’t go – didn’t have the opportunity to go into it. I believe that we’ve got to resume a trade agenda. And the political circumstances are challenging, but we have to try. I do, however, believe – when you talk about unfettered free trade, I do believe that we have learned some things about the benefits from trade. And we’ve learned some of the challenges we face, so that in some of the sort of free trade agreements that we’ve entered into in the last several years, the benefits have not really been broadly distributed. And in fact in several countries, the benefits of the free trade advantages have not only gone to a very small group but they’ve gone to people who were imported in to do the work instead of the people from the country itself.
So I think we need to enter into a new trade agenda with as many lessons learned as possible. And that is my view. We’re working on that in the State Department, and we have to make the case to our friends on the Hill that the right kind of trade agreements are really in America’s interests as well. And we’re going to revisit that and see if we can’t be moving that up the agenda in this coming year.
MS. BIRDSALL: Secretary Clinton, for your ambitions and your passion on this issue in particular, we thank you. Join me in thanking – (applause).
SECRETARY CLINTON: Thank you. Thank you so much. Thank you for your latest work on girls. We really appreciate it.

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What Everybody Needs to Know First About Economics

Economics designs peoples futures but this depends on what logics are analysed- here are the logics The Economist used in the early 19080s when it discussed how the net gneration could be the most productive time for youth


A nation/place cannot sustain growth unless its capital is structured so that family's savings are invested in their next generation's productivity. Norman Macrae's 1954 book on The London Capital Market provides chapter and verse. Historically it was timely as London's industrial revolution had planted most of the developed world's laws and financial instruments. Futurewise this book became a source for Norman's forty years of leadership challenges including 3000 editorials. THese became branded in the 2 genres of entrepreneurial revolution and future history of the net generation genre which he focused on from 1972. They script in practical details most of the changes that economists would need to make to historic rules if globalisation is not to collapse the worldwide financial system of 2010s

Norman framed his writings on future purposes huan most wanted around the idea that The Net Generation to 2024 would face change on a scale never previously experienced by our human race. To prevent risks and celebrate job creating opportunities Norman proposed in his 1984 book (The 2024 Report) that the world should unite around youth's most exciting millennium goal. He explained why economics would design the most popular futures if the goal was chosen as racing to end poverty everywhere. Reasons included: its possible, its exciting, it creates jobs post-industrial generation will need to design around collaborative technology, it can empower youth to joyfully unite cultures as we become borderless (more connected than separated), it aligns economics principles with nature's exponentially (compounding) rules of evolutionary selection which are community-up and open.

 download more profiles of 100 collaboration leaders of 2010s = youths most productuive decade 


We are shocked how few people know of the main findings of the renowned economist Maynard Keynes- increasingly only economics riles the world and the greatest risk to the future working lives of our children comes from elderly macroeconomists who hire themselves out to the biggest who want to get bigger.

Historically when faulty systems of macroeconomists ruined civilisations they fell one by one. But Einstein took Keynes logic further and hypothesised that the first generation to become more connected than separated by technology would be subject to a final exam. Now if we let erroneous macroeconomists rule whole continents of nations will collapse.

By 1976 my father (Norman macrae) -probably the last student of economics mentored by Keynes-  was writing at The Economist why the next half century would see the net generation tested - he called upon the genre of Entrepreneurial Revolution (ER) networkers to sort out the greatest  innovation challenge economics - and so the human race - will ever face .




The opportunity of 10 times more productivity for the net generation (with million times more collaboration technology than man's 1960's race to moon)

.The THREAT is preventing the threat of collapsing continent-wide system of value exchange. By 2020 the (exponential track impacting future) sustainanbilyty of every village around the globe will likely be lost or won

..logo3responsibility.jpg...How could we be experiencing record youth unemployent when we are living in a time of a million times more collaboration tech than a generation ago? According to research by Entrepreneur networks started at The Economist in 1976, we are 36 years off track in compounding 2 unustainable systems whose follies multiply each other
  • that caused by non-economic media which also distracts us with glossy images and soiundbites instead of future realities and integrated cross-cultural and inter-generational understanding - full briefing here
  • World's biggest maths error compounded by macroeconomists and all global professions with a ruling monopoly - see below
Discuss: what does everyone need to know about the way economists think and behave. Understand 2 opposite segments of E : The Unacknowledged Microeconomist and the Fatally Conceited.MacroEconomist

Keynes - because economics will incresingly rule the world, the greatest danger to the futures of youth is elderly macroeconomists where fame maks them compete to superpower over peoples  

 Boulding: ****the historic significance of capitalism is precisely a society in which exchange has become a more important source of power than threat**** in his book economics as science

Von hayek- given the fatal conceit in my profession, I really think you shouldn't be doing this - awarding me a first Nobel Prize in economics 
freedom of speech and everything about the future you want, NOW depends on enough people knowing how to play the value exchange game - and why that isnt exactly what the game of monopoly teaches - an exchange is where each side says I wants something from you so let's work out what I can do for you and purposefully improve on this over time through hi-trust communal feedback
debate difference between true capitalism and phoney capitalism
  • agree on a picture like that on the right- we have seen cases where one of the 10 coordinates shown felt the system had betrayed their greatest trust, and so zeroised the organsaition or network (even ones that accountants had been reprorting record profits ahd $100 billion equity
  •  start discussing multi-win models - see our 4 favorites from 36 years of debates with entrepreneuruial revoltionaries
  • choose say 12 markets whose future purpose is most vital to sustaining your children - and use media to agree what the greatest human purpose and corresponding mkilennium goals are that need investing in to fee each market and youth's working lives in serving the most valuable purpose
  • get those (including all parents?) who save across generations to throw out speculators from banking systems and capital markets - eg next time there is a bailout (which means taking your childrens money to refinance a bank) wipe out shareholders; let them set lawyers on old managers and any politicians their pr's lobbied; keep savings accounts safe; restructure bank so that it invests in youth productivity and sustaining communities not bubbles, and not trapping people in debt

Goodwill explains up to 90% of value impacts of any organsaition in a networked economy- yet no nation yet requires that organisations it licences to audit goodwii. 20 years of research has proved the following reciprocal relationship - the purposeful question" who would uniquely miss what if your organsaition did not exist?, has the reciprocal question why let your organisation contnue to exist if it has broken my life-crtiical trust it promised to serve



valuetrue capitalism maps how each side win-win-win from other sides communal purpose over time -this  goes back over 250 years to the criteria of free markets adam smith demanded freedom of speech questioned - he talked about the transparency of community markets where a rogue trader might fool some of the people but not for long and not for too big to fail! - the journal of social business edited by adam smith scholars at his alma mater Glasgow University advises people of any other tongue how to build up from adam's hi-trust ideas to such constructs as sustainable global vilage networking first mapped by schumacher (another keynes alumni) - we have a library of free articles for you to choose and translate from

phoney capitalism spins a monopoly, a non-free maket - one side rules by saying I want to take more and more from all of you- esentially this is what rules when global accountants audit only how much one side has profited/extracted withouth how much has it sustains other sides- phoney capitalism can only result in exponentai meltdown becuase so much has been extracetd from system that its unsustainable for human lives or for nature or for both

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    - in the 1990s I was working with big 5 accountants; I argued for a missing audit they needed to do as regularly as their monetisation audit; I called this how goodwill modelling multiplies value around a gravitational purspoe ewhise gials all sides want to progress over time; it turns out that in knowlege scetors over 90% of the future is bayesian predicatbale on quality of goodwill relationships-3 yeras before andersen crashed I usd this model to warn them that if they stoped multiplying conflicts around true and fair they would be zeroised by society- I didnt succeed in getting my advice to be acted on but at that time unseen wealth publications made by brookings and georgetwon had just been banned by the incolimng bush adminsitration - who didnt like to be told that without the second aidt risks would compound unseen- every collapse USA has seen a hand in during 2000s (and viralised to other nations since 2008) can be traced to this mathenatical error

    what can be done about this mess
    -debate difference between true cpaitalism and phoney capitalsim
    choose say 12 markets hose future purpose is most vital to sustaining your children - and use media to aggree what the greatest huan purspose and corresponding mkilennium goals are that need investing in
    get thse who save across generations to throw out speculators from bankiing systems - eg next time there is a bailout (which means taking your childrens money to refinace a bank) wipe out sharehilers; let them set lawyers on old managers and any politicians their pr's lobbied; keep savings acconts safe; restructure bank so that it invests in youth productivity and sustaining communities not bubbles, and trapping people in debt
    -if you do this today's millions times more coalbration technology than a generation ago can make the next decade the most productive time and joyful for youty and everyine to be alive instead of the most dismal time where natios led by old macroecnomist put youth out of work
    DO YOU KNOW...
    Q: Original Purpose of Economics? A The Scotland of the 1750s was at the end of a first generation to have found their country taken over by England's Empire., So Adam Smith was motivated to start writing about how to design systems so that peoples could could look forward to their next generation sustaining more productive lives than they had had ... 7 quarters later keynes general theory issued humanity's greatest challenge- economics as a systems science had reached the state that only economics rules the world ... moreQ: What do the man-made systems that rule the world look like? A Purposeful value exchanges composed round 5 main flows of how productively peoples lives are used and 5 main demands human beings make as co-workers, customers, owners, stewards of the globe, stewards of society at the village level - moreQ: Why can't human race in 21st C be sustained with choice of economics made by 20th C biggest banks and govs etc? A Long Story: ER alumni are in their 37th year of offering debating scripts eg1 on wht some industrial age systems after world war 2 were designed to be too big to exist as the first net generation became more connected than separated by geographical borders ... What is known is that 2010s is most exciting decade to be an entrpreneur because our impacts define what will be possible for all our childrens' children more 

    World Class Brands are in 25th year (as a subnetwork of Norman Macrae's Entrepreneurial Revolution) of helping sustain the most purposeful organsiations or markets in the world. Core to any charter of purpose is a quiz revolving round this question
    - who would uniquely miss what if this didn't exist?. From this Q&A's list of trust-flows, economics maps how to connect producers and demanders of the exchange in multi-win models of purpose. Henceforth, potential conflicts with this goodwill model are audited and resolved at every cycle so that unique purpose is celebrated to lead the future by continuously multiplying the most value and trust. This model provides the simplest benchmark around all exponential impact metrics of sustainability investement can be calculated and the transparency of all multi-win models are webbed around pro-youth economics. Questions welcomed washington dc hotline 1 301 881 1655



    Not youth's economics of the world Not our schools of the worldYouthandYunus.comLeadersandYunus

    Muhammad Yunus expresses faith in entrepreneurs at G20 summit

    Posted on: November 23, 2011
    Category: News

    Microfinance Focus, November 4, 2011: Professor Muhammad Yunus was invited to deliver a key note speech during the G20 Young Entrepreneurs Summit held in Nice, France. Professor Yunus addressed an audience of more than 400 entrepreneurs from all G20 countries. In his speech, he shared his personal entrepreneurship experiences, his faith in young entrepreneurs to be the pillars of society and the need to include poor countries in the discussion process in making global decisions.

    Professor Yunus being an entrepreneur himself started off creating the Grameen Bank that provides microfinance services to the poor who had little access to financial provisions. From that, he ventured into a wide number of social businesses such as Grameen Nursing College, Grameen Eyecare Hospitals, Grameen Shakti, etc.

    He has always considered young entrepreneurs to be the most effective solution for the future. He said “In my opinion, G20 YES is a fabulous initiative, gathering so much energy and momentum from all over the world. Because of their creativity and leadership, provided that they commit to share the value they create, these 400 young entrepreneurs in this room can change the world.”

    Professor Yunus is also a member of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Advocacy Group, advising the Secretary General of the United Nations. Hence, he believes that the next generation of youths should be handed over the process of the MDGs as soon as possible. He believes that entrepreneurs will have a key role to play in fulfilling the MDGs, if they are committed to the social value created by their companies, and social business can be part of the solutions.

    In his speech, he added that the G20 needed to broaden its scope to deal with the current world crisis. It can no longer remain a political forum with economic agendas. The G20 needs to create a social agenda as well. Professor Yunus proposes that ‘social business’ should be brought to the agenda of G20, as one of the concrete and effective solutions to be considered for immediate implementation so as to guide capitalistic investment towards social value and jobs creation, rather than sheer profit maximization strategies. A social business is a cause-driven business where profits stay within the company for its sustainability.

    Lastly, Professor Yunus concluded that the G20 should be expanded into the G25, where poor countries from each continent should be included in the global agenda which they are part of. He added that “Their problems are inter-related with others, and their proposals of solutions should be considered by the most economically advanced countries in making global decisions. A G25 would be a big step toward ensuring that global social issues are raised, and MDGs implementation is fully shared on the global agenda. And finally, because fighting poverty together is the only way to bring long lasting peace in this world.”


    inquiries chris macrae info us tel 301 881 1655 ; us office 5801 nicholson lane suite 404, North Bethesda, MD 20852 USA - skype chrismacraedc
     Mapping is a process of discovery. Crucially maps are only as usable as updating correctness of bottom up information. Think of your own use of a map. You look for the "you are here arrow". You want to be directed to somewhere/someone you dont know how to get to; you want your return vist to be safe as well as a value multiplying win-win.
    Does anyone remember the simplest findings of einstein and jon von neumann. Einstein proved that to innovate more value you need to go more micro in what you model; von neumann showed that there is more value to be networked by interfacing safe flows across systems instead of ruling over separation of boundaries. There isnt a single global metrics profession that gets these mathematical -and natural - principles right. Unless we change this global markets will cycle through ever greater collapse and more and more communities will lose sustainability. Mapmaking is that critical an idea to what the net genration will achieve in 2010s; but its also one that children from primary age up can action learn. Its simple. Its just that it works the other way round from top-down people's fatal conceit.
    It explores how to make the invisible principles and practices of real wealth creation visible, and therefore useable. Our planet needs case studies underline the search for new win-wins that build ‘system integrity’
    Trust-flow is the unseen wealth to invest sustainability in. Tranpsarently mapped it develops a goodwill gravity  tyhat invites with roleplayer in a community to multiply goodwill while sustaining their own cashflow.. Trust is not some vague, mushy, abstract warm-hearted sentiment. It is an economic powerhouse – probably just as economically and socially important as oil.
    The point is, there are specific things you need to do to get trust flowing, just as there are specific things you need to do to get oil flowing. And like oil trust has a dark side. Right now, the world is awash with the carbon emissions which threaten the stability and sustainability of its ecosystems. Right now, the world is also awash with the ‘carbon emission’ of trust – mistrust. Indeed it may well be that our ability to tackle the one issue – the threat of environmental catastrophe – depends on our ability to tackle the other issue: how to generate, deepen, extend and sustain trust.>br>But what is the best way of doing this? One thing is for sure. You don’t build and sustain trust via some sentimental exercise of goodwill to all and sundry. There are three very simple principles at the heart of effective trust generation. 
    First, trust is generated via win-win relationships. It’s virtually impossible to generate or sustain trust without mutual benefit for those involved. But beneficial outcomes are not enough in themselves. For trust to be built and sustained, both sides need to signal a demonstrable commitment to finding win-win ways forward. Such a  commitment may require real changes to what we say and do. Second, real ‘win-wins’ are hardly ever purely financial or material. You don’t build trust simply by walking away with more cash in your pocket. Trust works at all the dimensions and levels of human exchange. Yes, it’s about financial and material rewards. But it’s also about purpose (what people want to achieve). It’s about politics with a small ‘p’: the use and abuse of power, the crafting and application of rules of fair play. And it’s about emotions: the sometimes overwhelmingly strong emotions, both positive and negative, that are generated when people deal with other peopleWhat’s constitutes a ‘win’ – a sense of real improvement – is therefore highly specific. It depends absolutely on the details of who the parties are, what they are trying to achieve, in what context. Building trus, therefore involves discovering these specifics. Just as oil doesn’t flow out of the ground, get refined and pump its way into motor vehicles automatically and without effort, so identifying and doing what is necessary to get trust flowing requires dedicated, skilled effort. It requires a disciplined, structured process, not a vague sentiment.

    3) Third, even if we do steps 1) and 2) there’s still a good chance it won’t succeed. Why? Because it ignores an invisible third factor. In the real world, purely two way bilateral relationships don’t exist. There is always a third party whose interests or outcomes are affected by what the other two parties do but who is not a party to the contract. The environment is a case in point. Producers and consumers may both benefit from buying and selling to each other – but what happens if, in doing so, they destroy the environment they both depend on?

    This raises a hugely important question. When two parties pursue win-wins and build mutual trust, are they doing so in a way which creates a win and builds trust for the third party at the same time? Or are they simply pushing the problems – and the mistrust – further down the line on to this third party? Building vigorous, healthy networks of trust is a different kettle of fish to ‘you scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours’ win-win conspiracies. It requires a Map of all the key relationships plus careful consideration of knock-on consequences. It requires a different perspective.

    These three simple, basic steps do not happen automatically. They need to be worked at. The territory needs to be deliberately Mapped and explored. What’s more, there are obstacles in our way – mental and practical obstacles that need to be cleared. Prevailing economic theories about ‘rational economic man’ for example, deny the need to commit to win-win outcomes. Instead, they promote supposedly ‘rational’ (i.e. narrowly selfish behaviours) which actively undermine trust The same theories insist that the only valid measure of human benefit is money, thereby excluding from consideration many of the biggest opportunities for improvement. Meanwhile many vested interests do not want to extend the circle of trust to third parties and complete networks because their positions of power depend on their ability to take advantage of the weaknesses of these third parties. That’s another job for Mapping: helping to identify and mount such obstacles.
    The potential benefits of doing so are unthinkably huge. They start with a simple negative: the relief that comes from when you stop banging your head against a brick wall. Mistrust breeds wasteful, wealth destroying conflict that tends to feed on itself. Anger and hatred engender anger and hatred. Simply easing or stopping the terrible waste of mistrust would transform prospects for many millions of people. We desperately need to find ways of doing this. Then there are the positive benefits. Understanding the real nature of human wealth – all those dimensions of purpose, ‘politics’ and emotion as well as money and material comfort – means we can start being human again; human in the way we think, and act. What’s more, many of these intangible benefits won’t cost a penny. They’re there for the taking, if only we puts our minds to it.
    But there’s more, because trust is also an economic superpower in its own right. In the pages that follow we will show conclusively that material and financial riches are also dependent on trust. In fact, we will argue the case for going one step further. We will say that material and financial riches are a by-product of trust: the visible fruits of invisible, intangible human exchange. Once you understand that sustainable cash flows are a by-product of sustainable trust flows, your understanding of what makes a successful business is transformed.
    Separately, each of these three fruits – reducing the waste of conflict, unleashing the potential intrinsic benefits of human exchange, and energising the sustainable creation of material wealth – are massive in their own right. Put them together and they represent a vast new continent of opportunity.
    As we said, this book is addressed to entrepreneurs and system  innovation revolutionaries. Wherever you happen to be, whatever the change you want to make is, the principles explored in this book apply. The wish to change and the will to change are not the same as being able to change successfully. For that you need to understand your territory. You will need new Maps


    0.1 Has a continental or worldwide search solutions on job creation that can be replicated across communities been organised before this EU launch of Nov 2011?
    While alumni of entrepreneurial economics have always valued job creation searches- we know of no clear evidence that this has been top of mind in the way that continental-wide government has operated since 1984 even though it was scripted by The Economist's Unacknowledged Giant as the number 1 question the first net generation would need to mediate if sustainable futures and humanity's most needed millennium goals are to be served
    what's different about nov 2011 is 4 top directorates of the EU have nailed their future reputation to this search -more
    1mobamauniobamauni@obamauni bon mots hillary zero sum thinking leads to negative sum results
    1hHCL TechnologiesHCL Technologies@hcltech Press Release: #HCLT listed for the fourth consecutive year in the @WorldBlu's "Most Democratic Workplaces" list. Retweeted by Traci Fenton
    49mAl RobertsonAl Robertson@al_robertson About last night's British Council @time_image film collection launch, with three of my favourite BC films! #WhoWereWe Retweeted by Lloyd Davis

    The End of the EU part 1

    TRANSCRIPT: 'The Unthinkable'
    Video above.

    Tom Ashbrook: You're talking about, writing about the end of the EU, the end of the common currency.

    Paul Krugman: it's unthinkable except that continuing down the current path is unthinkable. Spain is actually the epicenter. The Spanish government did nothing wrong. Spain was running a budget surplus before the crisis. It had low levels of debt. But it had a monstrous housing bubble, as did a lot of places, largely financed by the way by German banks which were lending to Spanish banks, which then lent on. And when the housing bubble burst you were left with a severe, extremely severe recession, and so the answer has been government austerity which just makes the slump deeper.

    The alternatives to a breakup of the euro have to be Europe-wide solutions. And so the solution, if there is one, involves accepting a higher rate of inflation for Europe as a whole and that particularly means higher inflation in Germany.
    --Paul Krugman

    What are Spain's alternatives here? Well, if they still had their currency, their own currency, the answer would be devalue, let the peseta drop, Spanish exports would become a lot more competitive, they'd be well on their way to recovery. They don't have their own currency, so people are saying: Well, you have to do all this stuff to stay within the Euro. At some point you say: Well, you know if your answer to our problem is just ever more suffering, ever more you know... 25 percent, 50 percent youth unemployment. If that's your notion of a solution, then maybe although it would be a very terrible thing to have the Euro breakup, maybe that's better than what we're doing. So that's becoming a real possibility now.

    The alternatives to a breakup of the euro have to be Europe-wide solutions. And so the solution, if there is one, involves accepting a higher rate of inflation for Europe as a whole and that particularly means higher inflation in Germany. Talk to the Germans about this and of course they go crazy, but you have to say to them: What is your answer? What you're doing right now is just a path to the collapse of the euro with enormous damage and radicalization and a lot of things that you don't want to see happen in Europe happening.

    TA: If the Germans can't take their foot off the brakes, they're just intrinsically and against history and everything else, Weimar, if they can't do it, what happens?

    PK: Then Europe breaks up and... No, I mean I think it's that stark. It really is, it really is that extreme because you know it's one of those things, you can't be saying that, but then you say: Well, let's talk this through. You know, let's as it said in the original edition of the Godfather - Let us reason together. Right? What are the ways that this can work out? And the current path is not one that can work out.

    It's like an irresistible force hitting an immovable object. On the one hand it's unthinkable that they'll allow the euro to fail because the euro is a terribly important thing, it's not terribly important economically, it would have been better off if they'd, if they had never done it, but now that it has been done, for it to fail is a defeat for the European project, the whole project of bringing peace, democracy, integration to a continent with a terrible history. So it's unthinkable that they'll allow it to fail, but it's also unthinkable that the Germans will accept moderate inflation which is the only solution any of us have been able to come up with. So one of two impossible things is going to happen. Your bet.


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